"Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he."
-- Proverbs 29:18, King James Bible (KJV)

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

Prehistoric Stargazers on the British Isles: Mapping Midheaven Stars at the Cove Stones of Avebury Henge

Mapping Midheaven Stars at the Cove Stones of Avebury Henge: A Decipherment by Andis Kaulins, Traben-Trarbach, 2020 to Commemorate the Passage of the two-tailed Comet NeoWise in 2020 A.D., which awakened a world-wide interest in Astronomy in the Era of the Coronavirus COVID-19

Click on the following image to obtain a larger original graphic.
Then match the outer perimeter shapes of the stones with the shapes
formed by bright stars in the Starry Night Pro map of Midheaven.

The North Ecliptic Pole is marked clearly by the roundish-shaped disk on Cove Stone I, corresponding to a small circle of stars at Omega Draconis, just below the label Draco on the map above.

The North Celestial Pole is marked on Cove Stone II at the star Thuban (Alpha Draconis), which appears to be the eye of the larger human profile represented by Cove Stone II, with other stars marked by cupmarks seen as small white circles on the stone.

Avebury-Web.co.uk writes:
"[T]he two cove stones contained within the remnants of the northern inner circle [of Avebury Henge] are amongst the largest and finest stones of the whole monument.
Constructed about 3000 BC the coves have been found to be the earliest of the components that form the henge.... [the] northern circle must have been fundamental to the function of the whole monument."

The prehistoric era had no written word and none of the mapping technology of modernity, so how did the ancients map the heavens in the prehistoric era? 

That is a fundamental question whose answer is essential to an understanding of the prehistoric origins of heaven-centered human belief systems ... systems that we have inherited in evolved form as our "heavenly" religions down to the present day. After all, believers in the gods of yore placed their gods in heaven, and adherents of modern faiths do the same.

If we LOOK carefully, Avebury may provide us with a better understanding of our distant common human past. Avebury Henge is not only the largest megalithic henge ("a prehistoric monument consisting of a circle of stone or wooden uprights") in the world, but it also marks an early stage of organized megalithic culture, characterized by large megalithic ("standing stone") circles and other constructions in Western Europe, particularly in the British Isles. Indeed, megalithic sites are regarded by some observers -- in our view quite correctly -- to be precursors of contemporary "church" structures. As written at Heavens Between the Winds, by Agnes Castle, edited by Rob Reisner, Bob Bayer, and Michael McDavies (2008):
"[S]tone circles proved to be the precursors of churches of modern civilization. For instance the National Church of Scotland is called a Kirk which is a Circle, and we note the term Circus, which is Latin meaning “a ring”, is linguistically related to the Greek word “Kirkos” which means a circular building, edifice or church."
So, forget modernity for now, and put your "primitive brain" to work for a few moments, as if it were 5000 years ago or more -- an era that is relevant still, in spite of the passage of millennia, as just shown to us in 2020 A.D. by the Great Comet Neowise, to whom the ancients probably would have attributed the coronavirus. Only when we understand that the present is an integral part of the past, and that the future is an inevitable product of the present, can we properly gain the attitude required to successfully reconstruct the history of humankind.

Imagine, now, that it is ca. 3000 B.C. and you are sitting around a campfire on an early twilight evening as the twinkling stars emerge to splendored visibility in the sky. You chat amiably with family, friends and neighbors and/or "clan", and you view the broad expanse of stars above you in the night's starry sky, wondering where you are and why. Someone asks: "What is it all about, Alfie."

Consider then, this: if ancient humankind did "map" the stars of the heavens in the megalithic era as part of their belief system and as a part of trying to understand their existence on Planet Earth -- a surveyor-type mapping which also had a practical significance in terms of human orientation and movement geographically on the ground -- ala "Follow the Drinking Gourd" -- how would such a mapping have been done? How could it have been done? And how would such a mapping have been "recorded" so that it could be used in the future?

Let us see if we can figure some of it out, by looking at a modern star map of "midheaven", modernly marked by the stellar constellation Draco, the Dragon, a human "arrangement" of the midheaven stars that traces back more than 2000 years ago to Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus of Alexandria), his Almagest, and to Hipparchus, viewed by some as the discoverer of precession of the equinoxes.

Initially, for analytical reasons and because of marked environmental changes starting ca. 4250 B.C., we used a base construction date of 4320 B.C. for Avebury Henge. However, Avebury Henge is currently radiocarbon-dated by the archaeologists to ca. 3000 B.C., and that will most likely be right for the henge that we see now, based on what you read below. The Wikipedia informs us that:
"Aubrey Burl suggests dates of 3000 BC for the central cove, 2900 BC for the inner stone circle, 2600 BC for the outer circle and henge, and around 2400 BC for the avenues."
The central "Cove Stones" are of primal importance for understanding what Avebury Henge is all about -- astronomy, viz. a heaven-centered belief system. Did the Cove Stones initially focus on the stars of Midheaven, i.e. the stars at the North Ecliptic Pole, and also North Celestial Pole, an area of the sky which we currently identify as the constellation Draco? We hope to prove that here.

Via Starry Night Pro astronomy software, the images below present graphics of the stars of midheaven at Draco, for two different eras, in an area of sky that is marked by two "poles", the North Ecliptic Pole and the North Celestial Pole. Note the difference in the position of the North Celestial Pole between the first and second image, whereas the North Ecliptic Pole is fixed in the same position.

 The Stars of Midheaven ca. 4320 B.C.
 Click the graphic below to obtain the larger original size image

 The Stars of Midheaven ca. 3117 B.C.
 Click the graphic below to obtain the larger original size image

To repeat, the North Ecliptic Pole is fixed in its position in the sky, whereas the North Celestial Pole moves with time.

The traditional view is that the North Celestial Pole moves one degree every 72 years and sweeps a 360° circle in 25,920 years, measured against the background of the starry signs of the Zodiac, viz. 2160 years x 12. Those numbers are easily worked with, were used by the ancients, and that is why we prefer them.

The phenomenon of "pole movement" itself is called general precession viz. axial precession by astronomers and was historically called "precession of the Equinoxes" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, with a nice graphic image) the most familiar term to most academics. Precession was first arguably measured by Hipparchus (ca. 190 B.C. to 120 B.C.), but he surely relied for his knowledge in part on even older sources, though the question is then, which ones. 

For a nice visual explanation of precession see online the "down to earth" YouTube video by David Cochrane as also the presentation of Axial Precession by Sixty Symbols, who use the general precession period of 26,000 years. Some moderns put the value of Precession of the Equinoxes at 25,772 years based on some formulas with various assumptions that do not seem to be universally accepted. Hence, the actual long-term length of precession is today somewhat unclear officially, and we stick with the traditional value of 25,920 years.

Another issue in viewing how ancient stargazers viewed the heavens is that we moderns do not draw star groupings exactly the same way that our forebears did. The brightest stars of course likely remain pretty much as they always were, but in drawing up an asterism or stellar constellation, even the bright stars can be connected in numerous different ways. 

For example, if we take the stars at Midheaven, modern astronomy draws the tail of the Dragon so that the relatively brighter stars Esadich (Iota Draconis, magnitude 3.28) and Aldhibain (Eta Draconis, magnitude 2.71) each connect to the rather dim star Theta Draconis (magnitude 4.00) that is between them but somewhat to the side of them The ancients appear to have connected the two brighter stars directly in their perimeter stars without connecting Theta.

The question now arises as to whether ANY of the large stones at Avebury in the shape of their outlined perimeter stars (i.e. the "outer profile" of the stone) fit into the image formed by the stars of Draco. The answer has to be: ABSOLUTELY!

How about Avebury Cove Stone I ? and How about Avebury Cove Stone II?

Avebury-Web.co.uk writes:
"[T]he two cove stones contained within the remnants of the northern inner circle [of Avebury Henge] are amongst the largest and finest stones of the whole monument. Constructed about 3000 BC the coves have been found to be the earliest of the components that form the henge."
Avebury-Web.co.uk also alerts us to a photograph out of the past which shows that the Cove Stones have been "righted" recently, perhaps resulting in positional changes that no longer reflect their original orientation, which also is a phenomenon that applies to Alexander Keiller's restoration of Avebury megaliths in the 1930's, when that may already have occurred earlier.

The same thing applies to Cove Stone I, whose position is now about 180° turned from its original position, something suggested by our decipherments of the stars which these megaliths represent.

Stone "F" of the Cove Stones is now missing, apparently having been destroyed, but one can see from the photograph(s) that it represented the stars of Hercules. The nearby "sunken" Cove Stone likely represents Cepheus, as the extreme opposite position of the North Ecliptic Pole in its 26,000-year journey.
For the positions of the stones, I reference Thomas Melrose's Avebury: An Archaeological Map, which can be purchased for under ten pounds at Megalithic Maps online as well as at the Megalithic Portal at Megalithic.co.uk.

In any case, without further ado, here is our decipherment solution to the purpose of Cove Stones I and II, which by their outer perimeters reflect lines that can be drawn in the heavens at Midheaven to represent figures in the stars.

Cove Stone I marks the North Ecliptic Pole at the small circle of stars found at Omega Draconis (ω Draconis viz. 28 Draconis), magnitude 4.77, the brightest star near the actual North Ecliptic Pole, a position here identified and confirmed by the square of stars (HIP 86481, HIP 87237, HIP 87730, and HIP 86184) beneath the star circle at Omega Draconis and also carved on Cove Stone I.

The North Ecliptic Pole is prominently drawn on Cove Stone I as a roundish figure carved clearly, and easily visible to everyone, showing that the ancients used the small circle of stars at Omega Draconis as their heaven's center.

We mark heaven's poles similarly even today, e.g. marking Polaris as the North Celestial Pole Star, even though the pole is not exactly at the right position, but that position otherwise has no bright stars usable for the marking purpose.

Draco is shown as a serpent-like figure carved with its head at the lower left of Cove Stone I, the body extending rightwards to the lower right corner and then upwards to the right upper corner and then around to the left at the top. The perimeter shape (outer profile) of the entire Cove Stone I is the same as the outline shape of the group stars represented by the stone. Avebury Cove I was the first stone at the Avebury Cove that we deciphered, leading us to the subsequent decipherments. Cove II came second, not first, which in retrospect surprises us, because its perimeter shape at the top is so obvious in representing Draco's tail.

The broad outer face of Cove Stone II marks the stars of Draco located next to the stars represented by the broad outer face of Cove Stone I and also marks the North Celestial Pole near the left perimeter of the stone. The upper perimeter of stars so represented corresponds well to the manner in which the tail of Draco is still drawn today. 

More amazingly, when we take the main "outer" profile broad-sides (outer perimeters) and the main outer narrow-sides of Cove Stones I and II, and put them all together in one picture, this results in the figure of a woman to the left and a man to her right profiled in the stars, at the Center of Heaven, as follows:

And now you know.

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Two Tails of Comet NeoWise Photo by Astrophotography Expert Gerald Rhemann at UK's AstronomyNow Magazine

Perhaps the best online photograph yet of the two tails of the Great Comet NeoWise, a photo by Gerald Rhemann, an expert at astrophotography, has been presented at the UK AstronomyNow magazine https://astronomynow.com/2020/07/17/dont-miss-comet-neowise-in-the-evening-sky/ in an article by Mark Armstrong titled "Don’t miss Comet NEOWISE in the evening", an article which also has a useful chart of the positions of Neowise in coming days with respect to the Big Dipper. The home page of Rhemann, Sky Vistas, http://www.astrostudio.at/, has many photographs of comets over the years, but nothing like the split tails of Neowise, which appear to be quite unique.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Comet Neowise Two Tails Featured at NASA via APOD's Astronomy Picture of the Day Photographed by Petr Horalek

Our comment to photograph and material below from APOD and NASA: The two tails of Comet Neowise, visible to the naked eye, may have been seen similarly by megalithic builders in the previous 5th millennium passage of Neowise near Planet Earth. Those ancient stargazers could have depicted the two tails by a figure that modern researchers have guessed to be the rather improbably gigantic spout of a whale at the focus of the megalithic site of
Mané Lud, Locmariaquer, Morbihan bei Carnac, Brittany, France.
The image below via NASA is linked from the APOD website,
which presents the The Long Tails of Comet NEOWISE
Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horalek:

Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos!
Each day a different image or photograph
of our fascinating universe is featured,
along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

2020 July 16
See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download
the highest resolution version available.

The Long Tails of Comet NEOWISE
Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horalek
Explanation: This Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) now sweeps through our fair planet's northern skies. Its long tails stretch across this deep skyview from Suchy Vrch, Czech Republic. Recorded on the night of July 13/14, the composite of untracked foreground and tracked and filtered sky exposures teases out details in the comet's tail not visible to the unaided eye. Faint structures extend to the top of the frame, over 20 degrees from the comet's bright coma. Pushed out by the pressure of sunlight itself, the broad curve of the comet's yellowish dust tail is easy to see by eye. But the fainter, more bluish tail is separate from the reflective comet dust. The fainter tail is an ion tail, formed as ions from the cometary coma are dragged outward by magnetic fields in the solar wind and fluoresce in the sunlight. Outbound NEOWISE is climbing higher in northern evening skies, coming closest to Earth on July 23rd.

Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: || July 15 || July 14 || July 13 || July 12 || July 11 || July 10 & earlier ||
Tomorrow's picture: tales in space

< | Archive | Submissions | Index | Search | Calendar | RSS | Education | About APOD | Discuss | >

Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
& Michigan Tech. U.

Comet Neowise over Stonehenge Astronomy Photograph by Declan Deval Picture of the Day via APOD NASA

Comet Neowise over Stonehenge
photographed by Declan Deval
Fabulous photo.

Image linked via APOD, Astronomy Picture of the Day, NASA

Saturday, July 11, 2020

Was Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) Depicted ca. 6800 Years Ago at the Megalithic Site Mané Lud, Locmariaquer, Morbihan bei Carnac, Brittany, France ?

And now,
directly relevant to our immediately previous Mané Lud decipherment posting ...
is the question of
whether the Mané Lud (Mane Lud) megalithic dolmen
and its passageway stones
in their total "comet-like" form
were erected ca. 6766 years ago
(the orbital period of Comet Neowise calculated by our modern astronomers)
to commemorate the then similarly close Earth passage of
Comet NEOWISE in the stars of Auriga.

Neowise is named for the telescope used to first discover it in our era,
viz. named C/2020 F3 officially astronomically, and is now seen --
11 July 2020 -- in "full bloom" viz. in full "spouting form" in the starry sky.
See the NASA etc. photo at Space.com which is credited there as:
"Processed data from the WISPR instrument on NASA’s Parker Solar Probe shows greater detail in the twin tails of comet NEOWISE, as seen on July 5, 2020. The lower, broader tail is the comet’s dust tail, while the thinner, upper tail is the comet’s ion tail. (Image credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL/Naval Research Lab/Parker Solar Probe/Guillermo Stenborg)"
Comet Neowise and its cometary tail just became visible to the naked eye
in that region of the starry sky that we modernly designate as the stars of Auriga.

That "coincidence" raises the further question about Mané Lud
of whether the mystery figure that is clearly carved
into the central standing stone of this ancient megalithic site
-- seen by some as allegedly depicting a sperm whale with a giant spout --
actually depicts instead, nearly 6800 years ago,
the cometary "split" tail of C/2020 F3, i.e. the Comet Neowise,
which modernly has a split tail according to EarthSky
and could be symbolically represented as we see at Mané Lud
by early stargazers who did not yet know what a comet was.

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Mané Lud, Locmariaquer, Morbihan bei Carnac, Brittany, France, Dolmen Passageway Stones Deciphered as Megalithic Astronomy (plus) The Newly Discovered Durrington Walls Shafts Teach the Archaeological Community to Make Substantial Revisions in Their Dogmatic Thinking

Astronomy is the oldest of the sciences,
and the contemplation of the heavens,
with their periodic regularities,
gave men their first conceptions of natural law.
-- Bertrand Russell (later Nobel Prize winner for Literature)
in Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits, Simon and Schuster (Clarion Books), New York, 1948. Quoted at AndisKaulins.com.
The following posting is a seminal piece forcefully supporting our decades-long identification of many carved markings on ancient standing stones as being astronomical in nature, a view long ignored by mainstream archaeological communities, to their own stubborn detriment.

Perhaps recent reports about spectacular new -- surely cosmologically-related -- finds near Stonehenge and Woodhenge at Durrington Walls will help bring about a much needed change of academic focus in megalithic research toward a more serious astronomical understanding of the "heavenly" origins of mankind's belief systems, which began with a search for natural law in stargazed realms of stars.
Professor Vince Gaffney of the School of Archaeological & Forensic Sciences at the University of Bradford is quoted at The Guardian yesterday, June 22, 2020, for a discovery first announced publicly just this Monday:
"The size of the shafts and circuit surrounding Durrington Walls is without precedent within the UK....
It demonstrates the significance of Durrington Walls Henge, the complexity of the monumental structures within the Stonehenge landscape, and the capacity and desire of Neolithic communities to record their cosmological belief systems in ways, and at a scale, that we had never previously anticipated."
[As a late addition to this posting, we add here a link to the actual research publication online at Internet Archaeology: Gaffney, V. et al. 2020 A Massive, Late Neolithic Pit Structure associated with Durrington Walls Henge, Internet Archaeology 55. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.55.4].

The BBC quotes Dr. Richard Bates, St Andrews' School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, that the new discovery points to
"[A]n even more complex society than we could ever imagine".
How true, how true. But, in fact, WE have "imagined" it, for many years now.
See Stonehenge Deciphered
and our series of 2013 postings regarding Stonehenge and its forbears.

We now turn to the matter at hand, Mané Lud, a decipherment that has been slumbering on my hard disk for many years, and which we have now completed.

Below is our just now updated decipherment, June 21, 2020, including astronomical analysis of the passageway stones of that same megalithic site Mané Lud in Locmariaquer, Morbihan, Brittany, France.

Decipherment of the Mané Lud Megalithic Site & its Passageway Stones

(Please Click on the Image to Get a Larger, More Readable Graphic)

Please note that our own drawings above and below are based on images found at Serge Cassen's online presentation of Le Mané Lud en mouvement. Déroulé de signes dans un ouvrage néolithique de pierres dressées à Locmariaquer (Morbihan), Paru dans Préhistoires Méditerranéennes, 2 | 2011 [Mané Lud in Motion. Unrolling the signs on a Neolithic standing stone structure in Locmariaquer (Morbihan). CNRS, Laboratoire de recherches archéologiques (UMR 6566), Université de Nantes, BP 81227, 44312 Nantes, at serge.cassen@univ-nantes.fr and https://journals.openedition.org/pm/582].

Cassen's detailed work on photographs of the stones was immensely helpful, as was also his correct instinct to search for groupings of figures carved on the stones, including comparisons to similar megalithic figures found elsewhere.

The proof of the astronomical nature of the markings on the standing stones of the dolmen derives less from our identification of the specific stars in the night sky corresponding to those markings, but derives more so -- indeed spectacularly more so -- from unexplained carved details on the stones that we can explain by astronomy, but which otherwise are hardly to be explained.

Especially in the case of what we call the "Auriga Megalith" at Mané Lud", two small and at first apparently unimportant horizontal carved lines on the megalith clearly substantiate our decipherment of the carvings as astronomical.

 Megalith #21 at Mané Lud not only marks Stars of Auriga near the Vernal Equinox point 4320 BC but also line-marks Milky Way Borders

Click on the image to obtain a larger screen graphic, which is easier to read.

The above image shows on the left an underlying map via the astronomy software Starry Night Pro whereas the right image shows the figures carved on what we call the "Auriga Megalith" at Mané Lud.

On the Starry Night Pro map to the left, we have then drawn those figures from the right to show the corresponding stars, including the virtually star-empty square next to Capella, the 3rd brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere after Arcturus in Boötes and Vega in Lyra, and showing how the two otherwise inexplicable horizontal lines drawn on the Auriga megalith mark the borders of the Milky Way at those points.

Auriga was important as the initial start for our decipherment of Mané Lud because it is located just next to the Vernal Equinox in ca. 4320 B.C. -- a date we apply to the Mané Lud dolmen.

The megalith that is the neighbor to the left of the Auriga megalith must then logically mark the stars of Gemini, and, indeed, one sees two sets of twin figures viz. symbols, one set arguably marking the Upper Twins and the other duo the Lower Twins, as is found for Gemini in tablet texts from the ancient Fertile Crescent which we ascribe to the Sumerians (some ascribe them to Babylon) such as MUL.APIN, where one set of twins is transcribed as MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL and the other set as MASH.TAB.BA.TUR.TUR.

In our decipherment we then hit a snag that kept us busy for quite some time. The snag was the problematic mystery of the unexpected markings on the next megalith to the left of Gemini, which logically should then mark stars in an area of the sky that we modernly group together to form Cancer, a constellation of the Zodiac, characterized by a dim area of the sky that has few bright visible stars, indeed, only two stars brighter than 4th magnitude. Accordingly, we were for quite some time greatly puzzled by the 12 flying-like figures found carved on that megalith. By our astronomical analysis of all the passageway megaliths -- those figures could only mark the stars of Cancer -- but how?

The solution to the puzzle was the discovery viz. recognition that the "Cancer Megalith" at Mané Lud depicted the famous Beehive Cluster of stars in Cancer. This was quite an amazing revelation, since it was totally unexpected.

The Beehive Cluster is made up of "the 1000 stars in Cancer", mid-located in Cancer virtually right on the Ecliptic. But most of those stars are not visible directly to the naked eye, so that the Beehive Cluster seemed an odd choice.

Modernly, the Beehive Cluster is designated as Messier 44 (M 44), New General Catalogue NGC 2632 of deep-sky objects, and Cr 189 in the Collinder Catalogue of open clusters. To our surprise, our reading informed us that in ancient times, the Beehive Cluster was in fact already well known to the astronomers and called Praesepe. Indeed, the brightest of its stars in exceptionally clear conditions were/are visible to persons with acute vision, which is one reason that it was the first recognized "nebula", prior to the invention of telescopes.

Richard Hinckley Allen wrote about Praesepe in Star Names, for which see online The history of the nebula Praesepe (from Star Names, by Richard Hinckley).

As we can see in the image below, the "Cancer Megalith" at Mané Lud marks stars in this area of the heavens with flying-like figures that represent the brightest stars in the Beehive Cluster:

Megalith #17 at Mané Lud marks Cancer via the Brightest Stars
in the Beehive Cluster (M 44, NGC 2632, Cr 189)
Click on the image for a larger screen graphic, easier to read.

Decipherments of the stars represented by the other passageway megaliths remain solid in our mind but provisional for now in terms of publication, until we can write them up in greater detail, a write-up process which can face surprises, so we are careful and say "provisional" for now. Our decipherment is confined for the time being to the larger graphic image at the beginning of this posting, without more details, which are ultimately forthcoming.

Friday, June 12, 2020

Microsoft and the Background Command to "Uninstall 20.052.0311.0011" What Is That? Was ist das?

We have Win Patrol installed on our system to make use of WinPatrol's "Scotty the Windows Watchdog", who watches over background system changes and alerts the user about them. Scotty just alerted us to a background command to "Uninstall 20.052.0311.0011", an uninstall which required our OK.

Since we had no idea what 20.052.0311.0011 was,
we researched a bit online before OK-ing the uninstall.

It appears from our research sojourn
that 20.052.0311.0011 is
a so-called enterprise deferred Microsoft OneDrive client installation
(there are apparently also other installation variants)
that can cause performance issues in Windows 10 networks
(since the last updates).

Let us know, if you are an expert on this matter, if we need to make corrections, additions or deletions in our text above regarding this topic. Thank you.

See in this regard:

Born's Tech and Windows World (in English language) -  OneDrive causes network performance issues


Hans Brender's Blog (in German language) - Office und OneDrive | Speichern und Teilen

Based on what we read there, we OK-ed the uninstall on our system,
but please note that we make no warranties or guarantees
about our analysis of the uninstall, since this is not our field of expertise.

Don't take our word for it.

At all times in digital matters,
we recommend to check, recheck, and check again.

Take care. Stay healthy!
Paß auf! Bleib gesund!

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Who Needs Cash??!! The Myth of Federal Debt in Modern Monetary Theory, Where Money is a Public Monopoly

Stephanie Kelton writes at the NY Times about
"Our country's myth about federal debt, explained"

in her article
Learn To Love Trillion-Dollar Deficits

where she puts forward the observation of Walter Mosler,
author of the book “Soft Currency Economics”,

in explaining Modern Monetary Theory ("M.M.T.", "MMT"), that

money is a public monopoly:

"Since the U.S. government is the sole issuer of the currency ... it was silly to think of Uncle Sam as needing to get dollars from the rest of us."

Well, yes, absolutely right ... short term.
But long term one still has to deal with:

1) inflation and the problem, for example, of invariable viz. fixed incomes and
2) the necessity of productivity by the economy, regardless of the cash,
because you nevertheless have to have something to buy.

If money were always perfectly "free" as a "give away",
why would anyone work?

So, there still has to be "something" beyond the monetary public monopoly,
because from "nothing" ... comes "nothing".

Hat tip to CaryGEE.

The Insouciance of The Wall Street Stock Market Which Just Had its Biggest 50-Day Rally in History

The current insouciance of the Wall Street stock market is a mystery.

Or is it?

Spencer Bokat-Lindell headlines at the New York Times:

Why Isn’t the Stock Market Reading the Room?


"The nation is in crisis, but it’s not the market’s job to care",

and so,

the stock market just had its biggest 50-day rally in history.

What gives?

Wednesday, June 10, 2020

A Tectonic Shift in the Computer Landscape? Linux Open Source Operating System Rising as a Serious Workstation Desktop Alternative

We have been looking recently for an alternative computer desktop solution to escape the destructive self-serving privacy-invading data-mining and other-focused unilateral decadence that in the last few years seems to have engulfed the major players in the digital industries, to the great detriment of PC users.

We are pleased to read that Linux is rising as a serious open source operating system alternative for home laptop and workstation desktops.

Big-time player Lenovo has announced extensive Linux support and Linux preinstallation on Lenovo laptops and desktops (Red Hat, Ubuntu). That is a strong sales argument for anyone looking to buy a new desktop and reclaiming his or her own data territory and content.

TechRepublic has the story by Owen Hughes of Open Source at 'The world is really changing': Why Linux on desktop is taking a sudden leap forward.

"This is a tectonic shift in the landscape" writes Jack Wallen in What Lenovo's recent announcement means for Linux and the open source community.

However, Wallen adds an important caveat -- will users buy Linux?

That remains to be seen.

Will our new laptop be a Lenovo because of the Linux pre-installment?
It is possible.

P.S. This article about Linux and Lenovo is NOT an ad or any other kind of paid publication but is rather our own non-remunerated opinion.

Thursday, May 28, 2020

New Blogger Interface Soon To be Forced upon Bloggers by Google is a Design Flop Contrary to Author Interests

Google's official Blogger blog has announced a new Blogger interface
soon to be forced upon Blogger portal bloggers.

Thank you, but no thank you.
We have looked at it.
The new interface is nothing for us.

As a result, even though we have been with Blogger from its first beginnings,
we will have little choice but to transfer our main blog(s) to a different blogger platform soon.

On top of our list right now is WordPress,
and we looked at FirstSiteGuide.com and Anya Skrba's
How To Move Your Blog From Blogger To WordPress: Step by Step Guide 2020
as also looking at the WordPress guides at WPBeginner.com.
Eusteacia has a nice writeup with links to numerous useful plugins at
Moving from Blogger to WordPress with WP Beginner (Review).

After doing some additional reading online, the solution that we found as the simplest for us -- and we are trying this out at the moment -- is to use the "Back up Content" button function in Blogger (found in "Settings" under the menu item "Other"), which backs up an entire blog into an xml file. That xml file can then be imported by drag and drop into a wordpress.com blog with the Wordpress.com "import" function (found under "Tools" in the WordPress.com user dashboard). Later added Note: Success! In just about 1/2 hour, this procedure was completed in importing nearly 1000 postings, comments and media to LawPundit WP at WordPress.com, where we will continue posting LawPundit posts in the future. For continuity, we will post at both locations until a final decision is made.

We have no idea who is in charge of the design of the new Blogger interface,
but it is hard to believe it is anyone who has ever blogged or understands much about blogging. More likely marketing types designing for ad placements.

The user interface has been over-simplified (dumbed down) to such a degree that it is virtually useless for practical serious blogging. The rationale appears to be to make Blogger better adapted to mobile use, a mobile world where ephemeral "non-content" and invasive advertising dominate.

In the new Blogger interface, Blog postings that do not have an embedded image get an overly large but meaningless alphabet letter assigned at the front of the title, letters which dominate the entire page to the detriment of far more important things, such as the actual name of the blogger or the full title of a posting.

Indeed, the posting blogger's name is reduced to only the first few letters of the name in tiny script, showing how much importance Google assigns to authors.

Moreover, get ready to click considerably more to find the same features that you once found and used easily and really need to blog effectively. Now these are all hidden behind a blank and blinding white interface that just takes up a lot of empty space that could be used for something sensible. Blank is blank.

On a scale of 0 to 10 with zero at the bottom, we rank the new Blogger interface at 0, a rank meaning "not worth the trouble", "forget it".

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Stonehenge in the News: English Heritage is to Digitally Livestream the 21 June 2020 Summer Solstice at the Ancient Megalithic Standing Stones

The traditional live celebration of the annual astronomical Summer Solstice (Midsummer) at the Stonehenge megalithic standing stones has been cancelled for 2020 by English Heritage, but, according to Robb Report, the event is nevertheless to be made available digitally for the first time ever by livestream. Let us all hope for good weather on June 21, 2020 and for millions of observers! Our "time" on Earth is, after all, measured by astronomical events, something often forgotten in our temporal era.

For background and astronomical speculations as to why Stonehenge was constructed thousands of years ago, see our

The Stonehenge Decipherment at the following links:
and for readers interested in our Avebury Stones Decipherment
please start at

Thursday, May 14, 2020

God and Corona

 This is a true story taken recently from the pages of life in the coronavirus era:
Young daughter, age 3, to mother: "I would like to see God".
Mother: "God is not visible. No one can see God."
Daughter: "Can one visit where God lives"?
Mother: "No."
Daughter: "Corona?"
!!! Whoah !!! Out of the mouths of babes....
Children grasp the concept of "social distancing" quickly
... and apply it universally.

Even if we universally practice social distancing, we remain players in a world
in which everything is related to everything else, whether we like it or not,
even things that are not visible to the naked eye, such as COVID-19.

How can an invisible virus be reconciled with day-to-day reality in OUR universe
-- a universe in which we are neither outside looking in, nor inside looking out.
Rather, we are inside our Universe looking inside our Universe.
It remains an unsolved mystery that is at the root of science and religion.

As Giordano Bruno pondered, and we paraphrase here:
"If the world is a wheel within a wheel, and has no beginning or end, 
then where are we?"

Similar questions arise when confronted with the world's present situation.

Years ago, we wondered
what "God" thought when the present visible Universe came to be,
even if it has already always existed for eternity in invisible form....

As an answer, we composed and published the song I'm the Way
found online as I'm the Way by Andis Kaulins.mp3, duration of 2:40, at

Now that man and woman have come forth out of the primeval void
and have been domiciled on Planet Earth for quite some time
what do current events mean in the greater scope of things?


Has God taken "social distance" to modern humankind?
And if so, how do we return to God's grace?

Just sayin'....

Tuesday, May 05, 2020

The United States Supreme Court Enters Totally New Territory with Oral Arguments per Telephone

That the world will never be the same as the result of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic is clear from the Topline at Jack Brewster's yesterday article at Forbes at "Here’s Why Today Is A Groundbreaking Day For The Supreme Court" which states:

""For the first time in its history, the Supreme Court is hearing oral arguments via telephone — not in-person — and allowing live streaming of its audio, another sign of the profound effect the coronavirus outbreak is having on our even most tradition-bound institutions."

Read the whole thing here.

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Legal Coronavirus-Related Questions Affecting Large Businesses: Stanford Law School Launches a COVID-19 Memo Database: Example: Paul|Weiss Relief and Resource Centers

The April 24 Law@Stanford newsletter contains a link to Stanford Law School Launches COVID-19 Memo Database in Collaboration with Cornerstone Research, an article by Stephanie Ashe, SLS Director of Media Strategy, at News & Media: SLS [Stanford Law School] News and Announcements. The article reports that this new digital resource features more than 4,000 COVID-19-related memoranda generated by leading U.S. law firms, audit firms, and advisors, writing:

"These memoranda provide a real-time snapshot of the significant legal questions affecting large businesses as a consequence of the COVID-19 crisis. Questions relating to the CARES Act and tax matters generate the largest number of memoranda, with at least 253 and 237 on each topic, respectively. (All counts are minimum values.) Employment matters generate more than 200 memos, while SEC issues and securities regulation concerns generate 159. Antitrust concerns generate 78 memos, insurance coverage 63, litigation concerns 55, and FDA regulation 49. International trade accounts for 38 memos, while telehealth issues generate 36. Questions related to force majeure, a doctrine that allows parties to walk away from contracts without being liable for breach, motivate 69 memos. Dozens more deal with location specific issues arising in New York, China, Italy, France, Germany, and the European Union."

We are glad to see that our former law firm, Paul|Weiss (Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP), headquartered in New York City, The American Lawyer's "Law Firm of the Year" in 2019, is part of the offering with their Coronavirus (COVID-19) Relief Center, to which see also the Paul|Weiss Coronavirus (COVID-19) Resource Center and the following Paul|Weiss links:

» download a compendium of COVID-19 relief programs for businesses and employers
» view Federal relief programs
» view New York State relief programs
» view New York City relief programs
» view California relief programs
» view Washington State relief programs
» view relief programs in other states
» view District of Columbia relief programs
» view relief programs available from charitable and non-profit organizations

Friday, March 27, 2020

U.S. Coronavirus Bill Largest Relief Deal Ever: Paul Krugman Tweets "Not perfect but pretty good"

The Coronavirus Bill is in focus at "The New York Times" in
It’s the Largest Relief Deal in U.S. History. Is It Enough?
an article by Spencer Bokat-Lindell,
quoting tweets, among others, from Paul Krugman.

If Paul Krugman supports the bill,
and economics IS after all the Nobel Prize winner's specialty
where he is often right in his analysis
(while however too often erring on political topics),
then Congress AND Trump have pulled off a winner:
"not perfect, but pretty good".

Krugman tweets:

"From the description — will need to see details — this bill looks not perfect but pretty good. Lots of aid to afflicted families and small businesses, incentives to maintain wages, not too much trickle-down nonsense 1/ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/25/us/politics/coronavirus-senate-deal.html?action=click&module=Spotlight&pgtype=Homepage … "

Krugman tweets again:

"I'd say that it's about 75% a Democratic disaster-relief bill, with the other 25% a much more constrained Republican slush fund than we feared. It's light-years better than the things Trump was talking about just a few days ago."

Is the Coronavirus Bill a sign
that common sense is returning to Washington D.C. ?

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Individually and Collectively Surviving the Corona Virus Crisis

How do we individually and collectively survive the corona virus crisis?

To start, it is essential to keep the faith ... in humanity and in ourselves!

Humankind is a very resilient species.

Over many thousands of years of recorded history and surely for perhaps hundreds of thousands if not millions of years before that, our primate and human ancestors, male and female, have been facing and ultimately dealing successfully with all kinds of untold dangers, natural disasters, predators, calamities, wars, health plagues, economic and food uncertainties and physical and mental challenges of every kind and description.

How have we -- humankind -- done it?

In our present situation, when physical, bodily "social distancing" is being required for health safety reasons, it is however rather our tried and true close human "cooperation" on a massive local, regional, national, and even international, i.e. worldwide scale, that has led us in the past and will lead us now out of the apocalypse.

That long-term but undoubtedly successful total human community response will necessarily take time, but it will happen, and is happening, as sheer "necessity", an incredibly powerful, unrelenting, and unavoidable force, demands it, and as mankind's peoples, leaders and institutions rise to the occasion, as they must, for there is no other choice other than to prevail.

There is a saying that mankind  moves only when it must, and right now, it must.

On a personal scale, each of us has to do what we can, each in our own little world, to help the larger world as a whole to conquer the dangers we face with the least possible damage to all.

For many of us, just staying at home and out of trouble is already a valiant contribution to the total effort.

Don't drop the ball in this regard. Your environment will not forgive you if you are self-centerdly selfish in a crisis. Fulfill your responsibilities, to yourself and to others.

As for financial problems, there is no need to panic. If you can pay your bills, pay them. If you can not pay your bills, well, then you can't. The world will not end as a result. You will have to be patient and it may not be easy. Don't give up. Keep trying to keep things going as well as possible. You are not alone. Many are in the same boat. Community help may be required.

Upcoming will be special money and credit solutions, payment moratoriums and the like -- because such emergency solutions viz. emergency money and cash measures are inescapable. The economy depends on people having money, so it will have to be provided -- one way or another -- at best, directly, and hopefully swiftly. Who owes what to whom can then be sorted out when the corona virus storm has passed.

Fear not!
for fear is not an option,
at least not for most of humanity.

The "fight or flee" instinct is a long-inbred characteristic of humans, and in the present case, we must fight rather than flee, since there is no safe haven to run to, except the temporary protection of isolation and quarantine. We can not run away from reality. It has to be faced. The game must go on.

Each of us thus has to do what we can, within our individual means and powers and within our collective, community possibilities and responsibilities.

Then our ultimate winning of the fight as humankind as a whole is assured.

There will unfortunately be individual losses and losers in this battle, but there always are. Minimize such losses.

For your own part, hang in there and prevail!

Be one of the survivors
-- who will be in the vast majority!

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Power Hand-Washing Against the Corona Virus: How to Wash Hands Properly


Why Soap Against the Corona Virus? Externally Yes, Internally No


Unfortunately, this is no solution internally, since soap is toxic to lungs. See https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318437

The Search for Coronavirus Treatment Drugs

Reported at the New York Times:
Coronavirus Treatment: Hundreds of Scientists Scramble to Find One https://nyti.ms/3da9iEj 

Azlocillin vs Corona Virus Pneumonia ?? Any Impact?

Just a question here about Azlocillin.

If the new drug azlocillin is a virtual miracle drug against lingering Lyme Disease, then what impact could azlocillin have on the late stage pneumonia found in severe corona virus cases?

An antibiotic like azlocillin may have no great impact on the virus, but could it be effective against the lingering killing power of the virus-created pneumonia?

Friday, March 13, 2020

The Corona Virus Mass Hysteria: Compare Traffic-Related Fatalities and Murder Rates

Covid-19-related deaths since the first known case in November 2019
- ca. 5000 total, and it has been nearly half-a-year

Traffic-related Fatalities
- ca. 1.5 million annually worldwide
- thats nearly 5000 per day.

Murder Rates
- ca. 0.5 million annually worldwide

- - That's ca. 2 million per year for those two.

If Mankind Falls, The Corona Virus Will Not Be The Cause

Talking about the mad mass hysteria surrounding the corona virus, a friend ventured the opinion that Mankind will probably ultimately fall somewhere down the road, but the cause will not be a virus!

2020: The Year That Mass Hysteria Fear of Corona Virus Covid-19 Threatens to Stop the World

At the peak of the Great Depression 87 years ago, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated words in his first inaugural address that have become famous for their wisdom:

"[T]he only thing we have to fear is...fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance".

Roosevelt's wisdom is needed strongly today to counter the unparalleled mass hysteria of fear that currently grips the world because of the Covid-19 corona virus.

Measures are being taken worldwide by various authorities in all facets of human life that are inflicting far more damage on the world and its humans than the damage the corona virus itself has thus far caused.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Color-Coded Performance Levels - The SportPundit FBS Final College Football Rankings 2019/2020 After Bowls and Playoffs

Color-Coded Performance Levels - The SportPundit FBS Final College Football Rankings 2019/2020 After Bowls and Playoffs. These levels provide what we think are realistic goals for teams in 2020/2021 to advance to the next level or two, if possible. Note the large 1 touchdown rating gap between the top four teams and the fifth placed team.

LEVEL 1 - CHAMPIONS - rating (plus) +2.50 and higher : LSU, Clemson, Ohio State, Alabama
LEVEL 2 - STRONGEST CHALLENGERS : rating (plus) +2.49 to (plus) +0.49 : Oklahoma, Georgia, Florida, Oregon, Wisconsin, Michigan, Notre Dame, Penn State, Auburn, Baylor
LEVEL 3 - MEDIUM-STRENGTH CHALLENGERS in the TOP 25 : rating (plus) +0.50 to (minus) -0.25 : Iowa, Minnesota, USC, Texas A&M, Texas, Utah, Oklahoma State, Iowa State, Memphis, Cincinnati, UCF
LEVEL 4 - STRIVING TOWARD TOP 25 RECOGNITION : rating (minus) -0.26 to (minus) -0.99 : Washington, Navy, TCU, Tennessee, Appalachian State, North Carolina, Michigan State, Boise State, Kansas State, South Carolina, Arizona State, Mississippi State, Mississippi, Louisiana (UL Lafayette), Indiana, Nebraska, Kentucky, Air Force, Virginia, Washington State
LEVEL 5 - RISING ABOVE FOOTBALL AVERAGEDOM : rating (minus) -1.00 to (minus) -1.29 : SMU, Virginia Tech, Pittsburgh, Tulane, Missouri, Florida State, Louisville, Miami of Florida, Oregon State, California, West Virginia, Kansas
Level 6 - ENTRENCHED IN FOOTBALL AVERAGEDOM : rating (minus) -1.30 to (minus) -1.99 : Arizona, Temple, UCLA, Hawaii, San Diego State, BYU, Stanford, Texas Tech, Illinois, Tulsa, Utah State, Colorado, Wyoming, Purdue, Marshall, Florida Atlantic, Maryland
Level 7 - FALLEN BELOW FOOTBALL AVERAGEDOM : rating (minus) -2.00 to (minus) -2.49 : Wake Forest, Boston College, Northwestern, Fresno State, Syracuse, Western Kentucky, Colorado State, Georgia Tech, UAB, Central Michigan, Houston, San Jose State, Louisiana Tech, South Florida, Duke, Southern Miss, Liberty, Arkansas State
Level 8 - THE LOWER LEVELS : rating (minus) -2.50 to (minus) -2.99 : Arkansas, Georgia Southern, North Carolina State, Miami of Ohio, Ohio, Vanderbilt, Buffalo, Kent State, Western Michigan, Charlotte, Ball State, Louisiana Monroe, Florida International, Eastern Michigan, Middle Tennessee, Georgia State, Nevada, Northern Illinois, Toledo
Level 9 - THE LOWER FRINGES : rating (minus) -3.00 to (minus) -3.99 : North Texas, Troy, Coastal Carolina, Army, Texas State, East Carolina, UNLV, Rutgers, South Alabama, UTSA, New Mexico, Rice
Level 10 - BEYOND THE PALE - NOWHERE TO GO BUT UP : rating (minus) -4.00 to (minus) -4.99 : New Mexico State, Bowling Green, Connecticut, Old Dominion, UTEP, Massachusetts, Akron

YPP stats from cfbstats.com

Schedule Difficulty (SD) is based on the Massey Ratings
-- but in many cases we have adjusted them and marked those by an asterisk *
(* = adjusted).
Schedule Difficulty stats are rough approximations - just compare the ColleyMatrix to see how much they can diverge.

NAYPPA = Net Average Yards Per Play Advantage - Calculation by SportPundit.
AYPP = Adjusted Yards Per Play. The "calculation of rank" is made by taking NAYPPA minus the "calibration adjustment for schedule difficulty" = CSD (3 x SD divided by 100). We do all calculations in our head, which can be done swiftly, but there may be error as a result of doing things too fast, so we make no guarantees as to accuracy.

The system is not perfect! But it can give a good idea of the relative strengths of many of the teams without looking at the margin of victory or won-loss records against varied opposition and under various circumstances. Some placements are curious, but on the whole, the rankings can be quite useful.

SportPundit NCAA Division I FBS College Football Rankings 2019 after Bowls and Playoffs (rank is determined by AYPP, the adjusted yards per play rating).

Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
1 LSU 7.89 5.11 +2.78 1 -0.00 +2.78 15-0
2 Clemson 7.38 4.46 +2.92 7 -0.51 +2.71 14-1
3 Ohio State 6.94 4.13 +2.81 *3 -0.09 +2.71 13-1
4 Alabama 7.89 4.81 +3.07 12 -0.36 +2.71 11-2
5 Oklahoma 7.96 5.63 +2.33 9 -0.27 +2.06 12-2
6 Georgia 6.08 4.29 +1.79 6 -0.18 +1.55 12-2
7 Florida 6.47 4.90 +1.57 15 -0.45 +1.12 11-2
8 Oregon 6.34 4.73 +1.61 19 -0.57 +1.04 12-2
9 Wisconsin 6.30 4.79 +1.51 *16 -0.48 +1.03 10-4
10 Michigan 5.77 4.72 +1.05 4 -0.12 +0.93 9-4
11 Notre Dame 6.30 4.67 +1.63 25 -0.75 +0.88 11-2
12 Penn State 6.05 4.82 +1.23 14 -0.42 +0.81 11-2
13 Auburn 5.58 4.84 +0.74 2 -0.03 +0.71 9-4
14 Baylor 6.22 4.89 +1.33 23 -0.69 +0.64 11-3
15 Iowa 5.52 4.80 +0.72 *10 -0.30 +0.42 10-3
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
16 Minnesota 6.36 5.06 +1.30 *30 -0.90 +0.40 11-2
17 USC 6.52 5.70 +0.82 17 -0.51 +0.31 8-5
18 Texas A&M 5.82 5.25 +0.57 11 -0.33 +0.24 8-5
19 Texas 6.37 6.11 +0.26 *3 -0.09 +0.17 8-5
20 Utah 6.59 4.64 +1.95 *60 -1.80 +0.15 11-3
21 Oklahoma St. 6.39 5.79 +0.60 *15 -0.45 +0.15 8-5
22 Iowa State 6.45 5.36 +1.09 *35 -1.05 +0.04 7-6
23 Memphis 6.85 5.37 +1.48 *50 -1.50 -0.02 12-2
24 Cincinnati 5.55 5.21 +0.34 *15 -0.45 -0.11 11-3
25 UCF 6.92 4.57 +2.35 *85 -2.55 -0.20 10-3
26 Washington 5.83 5.11 +0.72 33 -0.97 -0.27 8-5
27 Navy 6.76 5.26 +1.50 *60 -1.80 -0.30 11-2
28 TCU 5.51 5.37 +0.14 *19 -0.57 -0.43 5-7
29 Tennessee 5.82 5.04 +0.78 41 -1.23 -0.45 8-5
30 Appalachian St. 6.26 5.01 +1.25 *57 -1.71 -0.46 13-1
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
31 North Carolina 6.43 5.43 +1.00 *50 -1.50 -0.50 7-6
32 Michigan State 5.19 4.96 +0.23 *25 -0.75 -0.52 7-6
33 Boise State 6.05 5.22 +0.83 *45 -1.35 -0.52 12-2
34 Kansas State 5.55 6.17 -0.62 **0 -0.00 -0.62 8-5
35 South Carolina 5.18 5.53 -0.35 10 -0.30 -0.65 4-8
36 Arizona State 5.74 5.51 +0.23 *30 -0.90 -0.67 8-5
37 Mississippi State 6.16 6.30 -0.14 *18 -0.54 -0.68 6-7
38 Mississippi 6.00 5.82 +0.18 *29 -0.87 -0.69 4-8
39 Louisiana-Laf. 7.01 5.45 +1.56 *75 -2.25 -0.69 11-3
40 Indiana 6.08 5.36 +0.72 50 -1.47 -0.75 8-5
41 Nebraska 5.76 5.61 +0.15 *30 -0.90 -0.75 5-7
42 Kentucky 6.17 5.21 +0.96 57 -1.71 -0.75 8-5
43 Air Force 6.22 5.53 +0.69 *50 -1.50 -0.81 11-2
44 Virginia 5.66 5.75 -0.09 *25 -0.75 -0.84 9-5
45 Washington St. 7.14 6.64 +0.50 45 -1.35 -0.85 6-7
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
46 SMU 6.14 5.76 +0.38 *44 -1.32 -1.00 10-3
47 Virginia Tech 5.65 5.20 +0.45 *50 -1.50 -1.05 8-5
48 Pittsburgh 5.18 4.50 +0.68 *60 -1.80 -1.12 8-5
49 Tulane 6.16 5.49 +0.67 *60 -1.80 -1.13 7-6
50 Missouri 5.27 4.86 +0.41 52 -1.56 -1.15 6-6
51 Florida State 5.84 5.31 +0.53 56 -1.68 -1.15 6-7
52 Louisville 6.68 6.33 +0.35 *50 -1.50 -1.15 8-5
53 Miami of Florida 5.66 4.74 +0.92 70 -2.10 -1.18 6-7
54 Oregon State 5.95 6.05 -0.10 *36 -1.08 -1.18 5-7
55 California 5.08 5.37 -0.29 *30 -0.90 -1.19 8-5
56 West Virginia 4.90 5.48 -0.58 21 -0.63 -1.21 5-7
57 Kansas 5.86 6.15 -0.29 31 -0.93 -1.22 3-9
58 Arizona 6.05 6.36 -0.31 *35 -1.05 -1.36 4-8
59 Temple 5.36 4.93 +0.43 *60 -1.80 -1.37 8-5
60 UCLA 5.31 6.71 -1.40 *1 -0.00 -1.40 4-8
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
61 Hawaii 6.69 6.29 +0.40 *60 -1.80 -1.40 9-5
62 San Diego State 4.78 4.65 -0.13 *52 -1.56 -1.43 10-3
63 BYU 6.18 5.60 +0.58 68 -2.04 -1.46 7-6
64 Stanford 5.59 6.30 -0.71 25 -0.75 -1.46 4-8
65 Texas Tech 6.09 6.59 -0.50 32 -0.96 -1.46 4-8
66 Illinois 5.00 5.60 -0.60 *30 -0.90 -1.50 6-7
67 Tulsa 5.32 5.67 -0.35 39 -1.17 -1.52 4-8
68 Utah State 5.81 5.64 +0.17 *60 -1.80 -1.63 7-6
69 Colorado 5.50 6.51 -1.01 21 -0.63 -1.64 5-7
70 Wyoming 5.49 5.03 +0.46 *70 -2.10 -1.64 8-5
71 Purdue 5.47 6.02 -0.55 37 -1.11 -1.66 4-8
72 Marshall 5.77 5.54 +0.23 *70 -2.10 -1.87 8-5
73 Florida Atlantic 5.94 5.38 +0.56 *82 -2.46 -1.90 10-3
74 Maryland 5.37 5.95 -0.48 48 -1.44 -1.92 3-9
75 Wake Forest 5.72 5.78 -0.06 65 -1.95 -2.01 8-5
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
76 Boston College 5.91 6.46 -0.55 *49 -1.47 -2.02 6-7
77 Northwestern 4.23 5.06 -0.83 40 -1.20 -2.03 3-9
78 Fresno State 6.04 5.73 +0.31 78 -2.34 -2.03 4-8
79 Syracuse 5.21 6.07 -0.86 *40 -1.20 -2.06 5-7
80 Western Kentucky 5.60 5.22 +0.38 *83 -2.49 -2.11 9-4
81 Colorado St. 6.24 5.58 +0.66 94 -2.82 -2.164-8
82 Georgia Tech 4.79 5.83 -1.04 *40 -1.20 -2.24 3-9
83 UAB 5.50 4.71 +0.79 *101 -3.03 -2.24 9-5
84 Central Michigan 6.08 5.42 +0.66 *97 -2.91 -2.25 8-6
85 Houston 6.02 6.81 -0.79 50 -1.50 -2.29 4-8
86 San Jose State 6.36 5.80 +0.56 *95 -2.85 -2.29 5-7
87 Louisiana Tech 6.09 5.22 +0.77 *102 -3.06 -2.29 10-3
88 South Florida 5.14 5.39 -0.25 69 -2.07 -2.32 4-8
89 Duke 4.53 5.35 -0.82 51 -1.53 -2.35 5-7
90 Southern Miss 6.07 5.71 +0.36 *93 -2.79 -2.43 7-6
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
91 Liberty 6.44 5.74 +0.70 *105 -3.15 -2.45 8-5
92 Arkansas State 6.17 6.11 +0.06 *85 -2.55 -2.49 8-5
93 Arkansas 5.21 6.54 -1.33 *39 -1.17 -2.50 2-10
94 Georgia Southern 5.19 5.66 -0.47 *70 -2.10 -2.57 7-6
95 NC State 5.18 5.59 -0.41 *75 -2.25 -2.66 4-8
96 Miami of Ohio 4.97 5.27 -0.30 *79 -2.37 -2.67 8-6
97 Ohio 6.68 5.95 +0.73 *114 -3.42 -2.69 7-6
98 Vanderbilt 4.78 6.57 -1.79 *30 -0.90 -2.69 3-9
99 Buffalo 5.39 4.87 +0.52 *107 -3.21 -2.69 8-5
100 Kent State 5.83 6.32 -0.49 *73 -2.19 -2.70 7-6
101 Western Michigan 6.33 5.85 +0.48 *106 -3.18 -2.70 7-6
102 Charlotte 6.31 6.01 +0.30 *100 -3.00 -2.70 7-6
103 Ball State 6.11 5.82 +0.29 *101 -3.03 -2.74 5-7
104 Louisiana Monroe 6.37 6.71 -0.34 *80 -2.40 -2.74 5-7
105 Florida Int'l FIU 5.59 5.66 -0.07 *90 -2.70 -2.77 6-7
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
106 Eastern Michigan 5.97 6.07 -0.10 *90 -2.70 -2.80 6-7
107 Middle Tennessee 6.36 6.21 +0.15 *101 -3.00 -2.85 4-8
108 Georgia State 5.85 6.64 -0.79 *70 -2.10 -2.89 7-6
109 Nevada 5.02 6.07 -1.05 *60 -1.80 -2.95 7-6
110 Northern Illinois 5.22 6.08 -0.86 *70 -2.10 -2.96 5-7
111 Toledo 6.09 6.62 -0.53 *80 -2.40 -2.976-6
112 North Texas 5.92 5.73 +0.19 *110 -3.30 -3.11 4-8
113 Troy 6.13 6.20 -0.07 105 -3.15 -3.22 5-7
114 Coastal Carolina 5.53 6.05 -0.52 *90 -2.70 -3.22 5-7
115 Army 5.86 5.53 +0.33 *120 -3.60 -3.27 5-7
116 Texas State 4.97 5.72 -0.75 90 -2.70 -3.45 3-9
117 East Carolina 5.74 6.52 -0.78 *90 -2.70 -3.48 4-8
118 UNLV 5.41 6.26 -0.85 90 -2.70 -3.55 4-8
119 Rutgers 4.46 6.22 -1.76 61 -1.83 -3.64 2-10
120 South Alabama 5.01 5.77 -0.76 *100 -3.00 -3.76 2-10
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L
121 UTSA 5.05 6.53 -1.48 *80 -2.40 -3.88 4-8
122 New Mexico 5.77 6.71 -0.94 *98 -2.94 -3.88 2-10
123 Rice 4.69 5.97 -1.28 *90 -2.70 -3.98 3-9
124 New Mexico State 5.21 6.58 -1.37 *100 -3.00 -4.37 2-10
125 Bowling Green 4.56 7.03 -2.47 *80 -2.40 -4.87 3-9
126 Connecticut 5.11 7.00 -1.89 *100 -3.15 -4.89 2-10
127 Old Dominion 4.06 5.66 -1.60 *110 -3.30 -4.90 1-11
128 UTEP 5.14 6.76 -1.62 *110 -3.30 -4.92 1-11
129 Massachusetts 4.28 7.77 -3.49 *120 -3.60 -4.99 1-11
130 Akron 4.02 5.70 -1.68 *111 -3.33 -4.99 0-12
Rank Team Ypp Off Ypp Def NAYPPA SD CSD AYPP W-L