Tuesday, February 18, 2014

The Starry Etruscan Mirror of Rome (Part V - Conclusion): Jonah and the Whale

Really folks, I make no money writing these things, there has been no honor, no recognition, nothing but work.

Why should I do everything? The golf season is soon upon us.

So ponder this, and YOU research it if you will.

Jonah of the Bible, famed through Jonah and the Whale and his seafaring sojourn toward the West in the Mediterranean Sea,

was a real person,

indeed, a Hebrew "prophet" for none other but the Neo-Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III, the arguably Biblical "King of Nineveh", who we have just discussed.

Well, it turns out that
Hebrew Jonah
is Arabic: يونسYūnus, Yūnis
and Greek and Latin: Ionas.

And the founder of Rome was Aeneas.

Now, one can believe all that mythology about Aeneas and the Trojan War and so on ca. 480 years previous -- perhaps there is an intercalation error ? -- but modern genetic DNA suggests it was around the period of Adad-Nirari III that Rome was founded by persons from the Middle East.

We have a suspicion.

Fore!


Evidence, The Founding of Rome and a Starry Etruscan Mirror (Part IV, Neo-Assyrian Astronomical Stelas of Adad-Nirari III)

Pictures tell a thousand words. It is one thing for geneticists to tell us that Etruscans are connected by DNA to the Middle East, but it is another thing to find that connection confirmed in little-known archaeological artefacts.

We look here at:
  • the Starry Etruscan Mirror of Rome
    and
  • two Stelas (steles) of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Starry Etruscan Mirror and Two Stelas of the Neo-Assyrian Empire

 Etruscan Mirror image source: Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie III, entry "Orion (b. Homer)", page 1026 (image), page 1027 (text) citing to Monum. d. Inst. 6, plate 24. Neo-Assyrian image sources: Adad-Nirari-III (Wikipedia), Tell al-Rimah (Wikipedia), List of Assyrian Kings (Wikipedia),    Israelite Kings in Assyrian Inscriptions (BibleArchaeology.org), Saba's Stele (Wikipedia), Livius.org.


 We show all three artefacts side-by-side to visualize a presumably "technology-transferred" similarity in astronomical notational practice.

 Star Groups Potentially Depicted by Stars on the Mirror and the Stelas


Both of the stelas of the Neo-Assyrian Empire are currently attributed to the king Adad-Nirari III, although some regard one stela to apply to Adad-Nirari I. These stelas were discovered respectively at:
  • Tell al-Rimah (Nineveh Province, south of Jebel Sinjar), previously housed in the Iraq National Museum but lost since the Iraq War, see and
  • Saba'a (Saba'a, Sanjak of Zor, south of the Sinjar Mountains), now housed in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.
We decipher those two stelas as follows:



Given the fact that the reign of Adad-Nirari III is at the center of the chronological disputes between Biblical Chronology and the Eponym and King Lists of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is there something we can learn here?

The TELL al-RIMAH STELE: ADAD, ISHKUR (Iškur) as CAPELLA in AURIGA

A bit of essential ancient astronomy bears on the above images of the mirror and the stelas, here quoted from Richard Hinckley Allen in Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 88, where Allen wrote as follows:
"The Akkadian Dil-gan I-ku, the Messenger of Light, or Dil-gan Babili, the Patron star of Babylon, is thought to have been Capella, known in Assyria as I-ku, the Leader, i.e. of the year; for, according to Sayce, in Akkadian times the commencement of the year was determined by the position of this star in  relation to the moon at the vernal equinox. This was previous to 1730  B.C., when, during the preceding 2150 years, spring began when the sun  entered the constellation Taurus; in this connection the star was known  as the Star of Mardūk, but subsequent to that date some of these  titles were apparently applied to Hamal, Wega, and others whose positions as to that initial point had changed by reason of precession. One cuneiform inscription, supposed to refer to our Capella, is rendered by Jensen Askar [Iškur], the Tempest God; and the Tablet of the Thirty Stars bears the synonymous Ma-a-tu; all this well accounting for its subsequent character in classical times, and one of the many evidences adduced as to the origin of Greek constellational astronomy in the Euphrates valley." [red block emphasis added]
Allen's text above explains one part of the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III, for the term Adad is synonymous with the above-named Iškur as a storm god (Adad, Wikipedia):
"Adad in Akkadian, Ishkur in Sumerian and Hadad in Aramaic are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon.... Adad is cognate ...with [the] northwest Semitic god Hadad. In Akkadian, Adad is also known as Ramman ("Thunderer") cognate with Aramaic Rimmon ... a byname of the Aramaic Hadad.... When Enki distributed destinies, he made Ishkur inspector of the cosmos."
Indeed, from the identity of Adad and Iškur (Ishkur) we can see from Allen's astronomical text that it must originally have been the star Capella in Auriga that carried the epithet Ishkur (= Adad viz. Hadad) in an era when Capella marked the Vernal Equinox and hearkened the Spring rains necessary for agriculture. Capella marked that Spring Equinox in ca. 3117 B.C., the year -- as we have long claimed-- that was possibly the starting point of the major world calendars. See our timeline in the previous posting and at LexiLine. Here of course we are dealing with a much later date, but the tradition arguably has remained intact.

Similarly, but not identically, to the Etruscan Bronze mirror, the seven stars -- here four on top and three and the bottom, do NOT represent the Pleiades, as some have thought, but mark the stars of Auriga. The reason for the confusion about the Assyrian Sibitti ("seven gods"), which some scholars have thought must be the Pleiades (though called MUL.MUL by the Babylonians), is surely found in Richard Hinckley Allen's Star Names, p. 87, under Capella in Auriga, where he points out that these stars all rose at the same time:
"The early Arabs called it [Capella in Auriga] Al Rākib, the Driver; for, lying far to the north, it was prominent in the evening sky before other stars became visible, and so apparently watching over them; and the synonymous Al Hādī of the Pleiades, as, on the parallel of Arabia, it rose with that cluster."
In this celestial context, K. Lawson Younger, Jr., "Tell Al Rimah Stela (2.114F)." Context of Scripture Online. Editor in Chief: W. Hallo, Brill Online, 2014, translates the first part of the Tell al-Rimah Stela as follows, according to Livius:
"To Adad, the greatest god, powerful noble of the gods, first-born son of Anu, unique, awesome, lofty, the canal-inspector of heaven and earth, who rains abundance...." [emphasis added to show it appears to mark the "river [canal] of heaven"]
NIRARI, NAHR, and NAHAR di NUR as the River of Light, the Milky Way

The round flower symbol in the two stelas in our opinion represents the Milky Way as a symbol of the king's greatness, which is the epithet now transcribed as "Nirari". In my book, Ancient Signs: The Alphabet and the Origins of Writing, epubli.de, Berlin, 2012, I identified the round flower symbol as the early written language syllable NI, which also appears on the Phaistos Disk, as the syllabic symbol representing the "tree of life" equivalent to the Persian term anjir "fig tree". Eckard Unger suggests NIsaba, goddess of agriculture and fertility, as potentially related to this symbol.

The name Nirari relates to the name of the Milky Way as heaven's galactic river. Richard Hinckley Allen in Star Names, writes about the Milky Way at p. 475:
"Among the Arabs it was Al Nahr, the River ... the Hebrews, knew it as Nahar di Nur...."
The combination of Nirari "the Milky Way" with Adad viz. Haddad (Ishkur) as "Capella" arguably marks a location in sky as the king's realm. The Neo-Assyrian kings, as already known for the Pharaohs of Egypt, may have used stars and stellar regions to mark their royal realms -- thus providing them with suitably "great" heavenly titles as regal names.

On the Tell al-Rimah stela, the flower of the Milky Way is apparently "worn" on the wrist of the king as a bracelet. On the Saba'a stela, the word for Milky Way appears to be written out at the top left as NI-hRw-hRw (read left to right) with the flower used as the first pictographic syllable NI, followed by an oar viz. rudder which seems to be duplicated twice (to be read "RO", possibly "hRw" according to my book Ancient Signs) so that we have a comparable term here for Nahr or Nahar, transcribed in cuneiform as NIRARI.

Why the stelas use arguably older pictographic symbols for the main stela scenes but then append longer "newer" cuneiform script texts about the king's regal deeds remains a mystery, but one must keep in mind the possibility that later kings could have used older original stelas as monuments for recording their own deeds on top of those of their predecessors, especially since Eckard Unger notes with respect to the Saba'a Stela that two different scribes had been at work there.

THE SABA'A STELE (do not confuse with the SABA of the Queen of Sheba)

The Saba'a Stele (Wikipedia):
"[Is] a boundary stone inscription of the reign of Adad-nirari III (811 to 783 BC) discovered in 1905 in two pieces in Saba'a, Sanjak of Zor, south of the Sinjar Mountains."
According to Eckhard Unger, Reliefstele Adadniraris III aus Saba'a und Semiramis, Publicationen der Kaiserlichen Osmanischen Museen, II, 1916, Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri, Ahmed Ihsan, Konstantinopel, 1916, this stela was found in 1905 by Crespin, [a supervisor at Dette Publique Ottomane, via Ancient Near East Chronology Forum], at the Saba'a salt lake, south of Jebel Sinjar. It was found broken in two pieces, with the lower half still set in the ground, but without a base, as was common in Assyria in those days.

Unger writes (our translation from the German, the original is below that):
"The relief provides an excellent example of Assyrian provincial art. Together with the previously undisputed political independence of Assyria from Babylonia, we can also recognize a comparable cultural independence here in the symbols used on the relief: a winged solar disk, the seven discs (Sibitti), the standard of Nergal and the fig branch, which are purely Assyrian symbols. Shalmaneser III's interference in the internal politics of Babylonia brought cultural Babylonian influence, traceable here from the standpoint of religion, which is manifested in the adoption of the purely Babylonian gods Nabu and Marduk and their symbols, the rudder and the lance, as well as in the symbolic rendering of the weather god Adad as a triple flash, rather than the previously used double-blitz. The contact between both cultures increased more and more with time, culminating in a comprehensive collection of Babylonian science by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal in the great library of Nineveh."

"Das Relief gibt uns ein ausgezeichnetes Beispiel der assyrischen Provinzialkunst. Neben der bisher unbestrittenen politischen Selbständigkeit Assyriens von Babylonien erkennen wir hier auch eine solche in kultureller Hinsicht und zwar daran, dass die Symbole der gefügelten Sonnenscheibe, der sieben Scheiben (Sibitti), der Standarte des Nergal und des Feigenzweiges sich als rein assyrische Symbole erweisen. Die Einmischung Salmanassars III. in die innere Politik Babyloniens hatte einen kulturellen Einfluss Babyloniens zur Folge, den wir hier nur in religiöser Beziehung verfolgen können, ein Einfluss, der sich in der Herübernahme der reinbabylonischen Götter Nabu und Marduk und ihrer Symbole, des Ruders und der Lanze kundtut, sowie in der Wiedergabe des Symbols des Wettergottes Adad als dreifachen Blitz, anstatt des vorher üblichen Doppel-blitzes. Die Berührung beider Kulturen steigerte sich mit der Zeit immer mehr bis zur umfassenden Sammlung der babylonischen Wissenschaft durch den assyrischen Konig Assurbanipal in der grossartigen Bibliothek in Ninive."
The Pictographic Symbols on the Stelas are Astronomical

Archaeologists, Egyptologists, Assyriologists and Biblical Scholars over the years have neglected the astronomical identities of many ancient "gods", who had specific locations in the heavens. The Greek Hercules is a good example.  The invocation of gods or the writing of their symbols on stelas can mean that ancient attention was directed at some astronomical event of importance.

In our opinion:
  • The two-pronged symbol on the Tell al-Rimah Stela and the three-pronged symbol on the Saba'a Stela mark Perseus. According to my book Ancient Signs, this is the ancient syllabic symbol for PU viz. PHU, followed by an R or L consonant.

  • The "flying bird" on both stelas represents Cassiopeia and by no means the "winged sun", as Unger thought, because otherwise the Sun would be represented twice on the stela of Tell al-Rimah, unless the "solar symbol" there be Venus, which we doubt. As Unger notes in discussing the "symbols" on the Saba'a Stela, duplication of gods does not happen on ancient monuments. This is the "Ankh" or "boundary" symbol, syllabically ZA viz. ZAG in my book Ancient Signs.

  • The flanged, cap-like hat symbol marks Cepheus at the projection of the Milky Way at that point. That symbol has been misinterpreted as a crescent Moon. The smaller narrower symbols between Cepheus and Auriga presumably represent stars we today call Camelopardalis. Cepheus is "the king" at the star Al Rai. The ancient "head" symbol in my book Ancient Signs is the syllabic symbol for LA.
  • Auriga and Gemini are apparently marked by the seven star points in two rows, as also apparently on the Starry Etruscan Mirror.  The seven stars on the two Adad-Nirari-III stelas have been interpreted by mainstream scholars to represent the stars of the Pleiades but they do not have a two-rowed form, nor do they occupy that position on the stelas and there is no evidence in Neo-Assyrian artefacts that their seven stars had anything to do with the Pleiades.



Evidence, The Founding of Rome and a Starry Etruscan Mirror (Part III, Solar Eclipses, Secular Game Calendration, Dendrochronology)

The Founding of Rome and a Starry Etruscan Mirror (Part III -- Chronology and Eclipses)

The currently accepted date for the founding of Rome is 753 B.C.

The current accepted dating of Rome goes back to the so-called Varronian chronology of Varro (Marcus Terentius Varro viz. Varro Reatinus). As written at New at LacusCurtius & Livius:
"What made Varro believe that Rome was founded in 754/753? He first established that the first pair of consuls of the Roman Republic had ruled in 509/508. To this, he added thirty-five years for each of the seven known kings. It is self-evident that this method is unsound, and it is rather ironical that 753 has become canonical, because it is the only date about which we know why it must be incorrect."
So, let us go back and examine how our modern calendar came into being, which is integrally connected to how the Founding of Rome is calculated.
 
As written at the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition (quoted and cited because it is public domain at studylight.org:
"Dionysius [Exiguus] ... introduced the method of reckoning the Christian era which we now use.... [Chisholm, Hugh, Gen. Ed. 'Dionysius Exiguus'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica 
The start of our modern calendar was fixed in Rome in 525 A.D. by Dionysius Exiguus acting under orders from Pope St. John I.

Hence it was ONLY ca. 500 years after Jesus Christ, and not, as expected perhaps, in some previous era -- that the start of the first millennium of our current era was retroactively set at 1 Anno Domini (1 A.D.) at the presumed date of the birth of Christ.

Prior to Exiguus,
the Roman calendar had been dated back
to the alleged date of the founding of Rome.

THE SOLAR ECLIPSES

In our modern era, establishing the correct founding date of Rome hinges on the correct selection of the applicable solar eclipse that is recorded in the annals as having occurred shortly before the founding of Rome.

Only two solar eclipses come into question as being the eclipse that could shortly have preceded the founding of Rome:
  • the annular eclipse (only 92% full at Rome) at Midsummer, June 24, 791 B.C.
  • or
  • the total eclipse (only 64% full at Rome), June 15, 763 B.C.
Annular Solar Eclipse of June 24, 791 B.C. (92% at Rome)

 
SOURCE of the image clip: "Alcyone Eclipse Calculator, v2.0.0.436 (2011-04-17), (C) 2010-2011 Alcyone Software, www.alcyone-ephemeris.info. The software is based on data published in the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses - 1999 to +3000. Eclipse predictions by Fred Espenak (NASA's GSFC). The Besselian elements were provided by Jean Meeus. Annular Solar Eclipse of June 24, 791 B.C., Gamma: 0.3903. Lunation: -34502, Magnitude: 0.9852, Saros: 53, Delta T: 6:02:51, Rome, Italy 12° 29' East, 41° 54' North, Magnitude: 91.7%, First Contact: 16:01:34 38.0°, Maximum Eclipse: 17:14:34 24.5°, Fourth Contact: 18:19:42 12.9°, Duration: 2:18:08."

Total Solar Eclipse of June 15, 763 B.C. (64% at Rome)

 

SOURCE of the image clip: "Alcyone Eclipse Calculator, v2.0.0.436 (2011-04-17), (C) 2010-2011 Alcyone Software, www.alcyone-ephemeris.info. The software is based on data published in the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses - 1999 to +3000. Eclipse predictions by Fred Espenak (NASA's GSFC). The Besselian elements were provided by Jean Meeus. Annular Solar Eclipse of June 15, 763 B.C., Gamma: 0.2715, Lunation: -34156, Magnitude: 1.0596, Saros: 44, Delta T: 5:55:06, Rome, Italy 12° 29' East, 41° 54' North, Magnitude: 64.0%, First Contact: 07:10:23 27.3°, Maximum Eclipse: 8:09:45 38.4°, Fourth Contact: 09:14:49 50.3°, Duration: 2:04:26."

The foregoing eclipses are also found described at the NASA GSFC Eclipse site, and are also presented in practical search form by Xavier Jubier at Five Millennium (-1999 to +3000) Canon of Solar Eclipses Database.

Biblical chronology and the Neo-Assyrian Eponym List

These two eclipses involve the establishment of a correct chronology not only for Ancient Rome, but also for the Neo-Assyrian Empire, where a multi-year discrepancy between Biblical chronology and the Neo-Assyrian Eponym list has long been alleged, a difference that might be resolved by viewing the Assyrian Bur-Sagale Eclipse (also written Bûr-Saggilê) as having taken place on June 24, 791 B.C. rather than the currently accepted June 15, 763 B.C.

Hermann Hunger has a defense of the 763 B.C. date at About the Dating of the Neo-Assyrian Eponym List, based on a cuneiform tablet allegedly predicting a "passing" lunar eclipse in the selected year, but one that never took place in Syria or the Ancient World. Modern calculations say it took place somewhere far out in the Pacific.

Hunger's arguments are countered by Dan Bruce in Reassessing the Bûr-Saggilê Eclipse. Bruce has prepared a Revised Chronology for the Neo-Assyrian Kings based on the hypothesis that the Bur-Sagale Eclipse (also written Bûr-Saggilê) took place on June 24, 791 B.C. rather than June 15, 763 B.C.

Generally, the chronological dating battle is still ongoing -- also between Thiele's Biblical chronology and alternative views, such as Bruce's above or M. Christine Tetley, The Reconstructed Chronology of the Divided Kingdom.

We are not taking sides here, because it seems that plugging all the data into a computer database and letting a PC calculate synchronicity will ultimately be the solution to this issue rather than endless wrangling about probabilities.

See on this topic generally: "A Common Source for the Late Babylonian Chronicles Dealing with the Eighth and Seventh Centuries," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 120:4, October–December 2000, p. 559.

The Founding of Rome and the Chronological "Dating" of Christianity

When examining the Founding of Rome, the chronological "dating" of Christianity and the influence of the Etruscans, we noted that Dionysius Exiguus started the "new" calendar with the "incarnation" of Jesus Christ. What did that "incarnation" mean calendrically?

We must recall that the divinity and/or humanity of Jesus were long a point of contention between the schools of Alexandria and Antioch, with the former stressing Christ's divinity and the latter stressing Christ's human-ness. The status of Jesus in early Christianity was thus much different than it is today.

Whether we moderns regard Jesus to be divine or human or a combination of the two is a question of individual religious belief and has little to do with our discussion here, which is not "theological" in any way. That is the realm of the religions. Here we are interested in chronology and astronomy.

First, Dionysius Exiguus-- perhaps wrongly -- computed this "incarnation" as the birth of Christ -- rather than Christ's resurrection -- placing it 754 years after the founding of Rome, which he took to be the date of December 25, 753 B.C. viz. 753 A.U.C. (Ab Urbe Condita, "after the founding of the City (Rome)".

As summarized at Ab urbe condita in the Wikipedia:
"The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome during 525, as a result of his work on calculating the date of Easter.... The table counted the years starting from the presumed birth of Christ, rather than the accession of the emperor Diocletian on 20 November 284, or as stated by Dionysius: "sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare..." Blackburn and Holford-Strevens review interpretations of Dionysius which place the Incarnation in 2 BC, 1 BC, or 1 AD. It was later calculated (from the historical record of the succession of Roman consuls) that the year 1 AD corresponds to the Roman year 754 AUC, based on Varro's epoch. This however resulted in that year not corresponding with the lifetimes of historical figures reputed to be alive, or otherwise mentioned in connection with the Christian incarnation, e.g. Herod the Great or Quirinius." 
As noted at hyperhistory.com:
"Dionysius wrongly dated the birth of Christ as 753 A.U.C. (Roman Era), but the Gospels state that Christ was born under Herod the Great who died in 750 A.U.C. [3 years before that] ... the Christian Era spread through the employment of Dionysius' new Easter tables and was later popularized by the English scholar Bede."
Moreover, because Dionysius Exiguus omitted placing a year "0" between 1 BC ("Before Christ") and 1 AD (Anno Domini = "Year of the Lord"), he thus made an initial error in calendric fixing, so that historical calendric time prior to 1 A.D. as used by the historians is always 1 year more than the actual "real" time as used by modern astronomers, since they correctly insert a "0" year.  An example is 3117 B.C. which is astronomical year -3116 (i.e. minus 3116).

A child is not one year old until one year has passed. For that reason, the birth of Jesus should not have been set at 1 A.D. nor should the new millennium have started at 1 A.D. In fact, modern studies suggest that Jesus was likely born ca. 5 B.C. (using the calendar of Exiguus, -4 by astronomy).

A second possible chronological error by Exiguus may have occurred in fixing the date of the founding of Rome, in which he may have erred by a further ca. 26 to 30 years, so that a ca. 30-year error in calendration could exist.

Etruscan and Roman Secular Games

One could argue e.g. that a ca. 30-year error in Roman calendration is reflected in the forced "re-dating" of the Etruscan and Roman Secular Games by historians, which by Etruscan tradition were held every 100 years to mark "a new generation". In modern times these were revived as "Papal jubilees".

A puzzling fact here then is that no games were held in 47/46 BC according to the calendar of Exiguus, at a time when they would normally have been scheduled, but were actually held only in 17/16 BC, which is about 30 years later than expected. Could the Romans not add? Is the 30-year gap to be explained away by calendric reform, wiping out ca. 30 years of time?

We wrote at Lexiline in 2004 about the Decree of Canopus 238/237 BCE (also the same time as the Etruscan Secular Games) about a calendar reform which was allegedly never implemented in Egypt but implemented only 200+ years later under Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar was advised by the Egyptian priest Sosigenes on that calendar reform, and Sosigenes as a calendric advisor was apparently following a calendric system by means of which 480 years -- as also in the Bible -- was used as a main length of time for intercalation (our timeline):
3117 BC start of the modern calendar in Egypt
2637 BC Calendar reform by Khasekhemwy for the tropical year
2157 BC First Intermediate Period
1677 BC Second Intermediate Period
1197 BC Rule of King David (Sethos) begins - whence Hall of Records - Trojan War also at about this same time
717 BC Start of reign of Numa Pompilius, 1st calendric king of Rome
237 BC Restoration of Etruscan "Secular (calendric) Games" in Rome - a date which also led to the building Edfu in Egypt at that time.
Hollstein's Tree Rings

Not only the Etruscan Secular Games support a ca. 30-year error in chronology by mainstream scholars, relying on Exiguus, but so also does dendrochronology.

Ernst Hollstein in Mitteleuropäische Eichenchronologie [The chronology of Europe by dendrochronology (study of tree rings)] discovered that current Roman chronology differs from tree ring results by ca. 26 years.

No one had any idea why his data diverged. Mainstream scholars of course thought Hollstein had erred, never thinking to examine their OWN historical chronology.

At page 74 of his detailed work, Hollstein discusses his tree-ring data for the Roman Bridge at Cologne, Germany, which, according to an analysis of the remains of trees used to build it, was built ca. 336 A.D., whereas the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (the first emperor to adopt Christianity and thus to bring it to the Western world) held a speech in Trier about the building of this very same bridge at the end of July, viz. beginning of August in 310 A.D. - a full 26 years years PRIOR to the building of the bridge.

Someone had erred - was it Hollstein? The tree ring data seem to be clear. In fact, as Hollstein himself observes, earlier dendrochronological dates from the nearby grave under the later-built Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) had already pointed to a date of ca. 338 A.D. and since then - underneath the southern "Querhaus" of the Cathedral - twelve [astronomers take note] wooden posts were found, arranged -- as Hollstein notes -- in a "circular stave" fashion, with evidence that they supported a roof. This construction is ALSO dated to a similar period, ca. 338 A.D.

Hollstein wrote (p.5) that he regretted already in 1972 not having accepted his earlier dendrochronological findings as fact, even though they contradicted the 310 A.D. date used by the mainstream historians for the comparable period. In Hollstein's words in German "Ich hätte das jetzt vorliegende wahre Datum dieser Pfähle 336 n.Chr. (vgl. Köln, Rheinbrücke) bereits 1972 akzeptieren müssen...."

Hollstein was by no means thrilled with his chronological dates, since they put him into a scientific quandry, having data which contradicted mainstream chronology, and having no explanation available for the deviation.

Hollstein's data may point to a circa 26-year error in Roman calendration. Conceivably, the tree-ring data might have been tied to a Roman "base" date which had been wrongly calculated.

And now we want to look at an apparent connection between the Etruscans and Neo-Assyria because a multi-year difference has been alleged by others between Biblical chronology and the Neo-Assyrian Eponym List (I , II) (see also Marking Time) as also the corresponding List of Assyrian Kings.

We thought we would research that dispute and in Part IV we have a surprise: two stelas that might reflect the same astronomical technology as the Starry Etruscan Mirror.

Check out Part IV, the last part in this series, upcoming.


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