Monday, July 22, 2013

Upper Mesopotamia: Locations of Ancient Sites 10th to 7th Millennium B.C. and their Astronomical Significance in the Land Survey of the Prehistoric World

Two significant maps are found on the inside front and back covers
of Klaus Schmidt's book about Göbekli Tepe,
Sie bauten die ersten Tempel
(extensive material in English at
and both maps are useful
to demonstrate the land survey
of ancient Upper Mesopotamia
by astronomy.
See reviews of that book in English by Claus-Peter Wirth and Jona Lenderig.

We have redrawn those two maps below and have added our own labeling and astronomical identification of each geographic location as we think it served land survey purposes according to the hermetic teaching "as above, so below", i.e. where we think the pre-existing "map" of the heavens above was used to map the earth below.

In those days, you could not walk down to the store and buy a map of an area, but people still had to be oriented and get around, so the stars were a logical choice as a map model. We find that to be nearly self-evident.

Decipherment of the Ancient Sites of Upper Mesopotamia
as Land Survey by Astronomy

The Overall Decipherment Map:
  • (top of map below)
    Upper Mesopotamian locations 10h to 9th millennium B.C. as listed on Klaus Schmidt's map (this is our independent redrawing and labeling)
  • (bottom of map below)
    Upper Mesopotamian locations 10h to 7th millennium B.C. as listed on Klaus Schmidt's map (this is our independent redrawing and labeling)
Of course, the astronomical identifications are ours alone and have nothing to do with the archaeological content of Schmidt's book, which does not have the term astronomy in its index.

Archaeology is an "earth" science and archaeologists still do not recognise that the ancients used the stars to map their earthly locations. See for a detailed discussion of how ancient megaliths served land survey purposes via astronomy.

This posting and the map below will be followed by explanatory postings about some of the most important of these locations from an astronomical land survey point of view:

As one can see from the above map, we have, among others, made the following identities of ancient locations and stars of the heavens (please note that we do not like to use diacritical markings and do not use them here in this short list because various programs and browsers do not render these correctly, leading to unnecessary confusion and false textual representation. In general, we do not support diacritical markings online for languages or alphabets (see on the topic of the origins of writing our book,
Ancient Signs).

Ancient Sites, 10th to 9th Millennium B.C.

Cayonu - Lynx
Kilisik - Leo Minor
Gobekli Tepe (plus our discovered Gobekli Koyu, Asagi Gobekli), Urfa, and perhaps Sefer Tepe, Karahan, Hamzan Tepe - Cancer
Akarcay, Tell Abr, Djade, Jerf el Ahmar, Cheik Hassan, Mureybet (Regulus) - Leo Major
Hallan Cemi, Kortik Tepe, Demirci, Nemrik, Qermez Dere -Gemini

Ancient Sites, 10th to 7th Millennium B.C.

Ali Kosh - Taurus (Aldebaran)
Jarmo - Auriga
Hacilar (Alkaid), Suberde (Mizar), Catal Hoyuk (Alioth), Musular, Asikli Hoyuk, Kosk Koyuk - all mark the main stars of the Big Dipper of Ursa Major (note that Turkish Catal means "fork" - the Big Dipper then ?)
Gobekli Tepe - Cancer
El Kowm - Leo Major (Regulus)
Jericho, Ain Ghazal, Jawa - Virgo (Jawa marked the star ZaviJAVA)
Palmyra - Hydra (Alphard)
Beidha (near Petra and the Snake Monument), Ba'ja, Basta - Hydra the Serpent
Helwan - Antares in Scorpio the "red star" - Saqqara = Siqor

We post subsequently about some of these ancient sites and will show how they mark stars of the heavens. Those postings may not come immediately and may be sporadic, because it takes enormous amounts of time to write them up decently. For those who have an interest in looking at maps and materials online, Ali Kosh and surrounding locations (Taurus and Aldebaran) and El Kowm (Leo Major and Regulus) provide some nice examples. But it is now summer and time for golf, if the weather holds. God (and the stars) willing ;-).

Aşağı Göbekli (second part) as the Third "Gobekli" in Sanliurfa Marking Stars of Cancer on the Ground in Hermetic Tradition, as Above, so Below: A Bull, a Horse and a Leaping Frog

This posting is the second posting relating to Aşağı Göbekli (second part), following the last posting on Aşağı Göbekli (first part) as an analysis of map locations at that site.

As already indicated in a previous posting, it complements our interpretation of the meaning of the better known Göbekli Tepe and the lesser known Göbekli Köyu as locations of ancient land survey by astronomy, marking stars of Cancer.

This posting will be followed by some related postings about ancient sites in Upper Mesopotamia that also fit into our inter-connected astronomical land survey analysis of the Fertile Crescent and of course we will have some interesting maps of not only the entire region, but also of selected ancient sites.

Here is our tracing of prominent lines and what appear to be mound formations on the original map at Google Earth:

Taking that drawing and reducing it only to the traced lines, here is our simple line drawing result for the traced Google Earth map of Aşağı Göbekli.

The brightest stars form a figure that looks a bit like a bull (stars via Starry Night Pro at The head of the horse appears to have been added later and the remnant of a bull's head can still be seen.

The second small figure above the heads of the horse and bull looks like it is a leaping frog or toad, kurbağa in Turkish, somewhat similar in sound to the later "crab" for Cancer. Perhaps there is a connection in development.

The following image shows very simply how the brightest stars in that area of the sky between delta Cancri and beta Cancri could be interpreted to give rise to men seeing the upper figures at Aşağı Göbekli:

Now let us look at the entire area of Aşağı Göbekli for our decipherment of the earthly locations as mirroring stars of the heavens, true to the hermetic principle, "as above, so below".

Our map of stars in more detail for the respectively applicable geographic locations gives the following correspondence of stars in Cancer to locations at Aşağı Göbekli. We view this to be the decipherment of Aşağı Göbekli:

We repeat here that we have never been to the actual geographic site in Turkey and that our analysis is based solely on online map materials. We do not know what the mound-like viz. barrow constructions on the ground are, that we equate with star locations, but they definitely fit the stellar analysis.

For those interested, here is a close-up of those mound or barrow formations in the area of the horse's head, and we presume they shine gold because the sun in shining upon them:

That completes our analysis of the "three Göbeklis" in the area of Sanliurfa.

Our next postings look at the broader landscape of Upper Mesopotamia.

Aşağı Göbekli (first part) as the Third "Gobekli" in Sanliurfa Marking Stars of Cancer on the Ground in Hermetic Tradition: Anatolia and the Origin of the Jews

This posting on Aşağı Göbekli (spelling also as Asagi Gobekli I, avoiding diacritical marks), as already indicated in a previous posting, complements our interpretation of the meaning of Göbekli Tepe (Gobekli Tepe) and Göbekli Köyü (Gobekli Koyu) as representing ancient land survey by astronomy. Note that styles of ancient marking at each site vary somewhat, so that the chronological date of origin of all Göbekli sites may not be equivalent.

This posting will be followed by a further posting, Asagi Gobekli II, and by additional postings about ancient sites in Upper Mesopotamia that also fit into the same inter-connected astronomical land survey analysis, i.e. as part of one broad system of land survey by astronomy.

Here we look more closely at Aşağı Göbekli, a place name location in Sanliurfa so little known that Google Earth has no label for it and its precise location was found only at, which does label it, even though it can not be found through MapCarta's own keyword search. But go to the site at this link that we were lucky to find in order to see the labeled location. It appears to be the lower village of two neighboring populated locations.

In our analysis below, we use the Google Earth map of the region, more out of habit than by any conscious preference of sources.

Aşağı Göbekli (Asagi Gobekli) is located near Sanliurfa, a city which was earlier named Urfa viz. "Ur" and according to legend was Biblical Patriarch Abraham's birthplace in Anatolia, which is today's Eastern Turkey.

Terah, Abraham's father, had his home in the Biblical town of Haran and that is surely the same as the modern city viz. province Harran.

Harran is only 20 km (12 miles) from Aşağı Göbekli. Coincidence?

Our work in this posting, however, is not to resolve some of the difficult outstanding questions about Biblical origins, but we note these matters for the record, as the history of the Göbekli sites may relate to the origin and ancient deeds of the Jews, who have strong DNA markers in common with Anatolian peoples, though this may not be their original location. 

The Atlas of the Human Journey-Genetic Markers-Haplogroup J2 (M172) wrote (Wikipedia): "The National Geographic Genographic Project linked haplogroup J2 to the site of Jericho, Tel el-Sultan, ca. 8500 BCE and indicated that in modern populations, haplogroup J2 is found in the Middle East, North Africa and Southern Europe, with especially high distribution among present-day Jewish populations (30%), Southern Italians (20%), and lower frequencies in Southern Spain (10%).[11]".

At Haplogroup J-M172 (Y-DNA J2 M172) it is written at the Wikipedia:
"In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209. J-M172 can be classified as Mediterranean/Aegean (Di Giacomo, 2004), Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia and the Aegean....

The precise region of origin for haplogroup J-M172 remains a topic of discussion. However, at least within a European context, Anatolia and the Aegean seem to be source regions, with Hg J2 having perhaps arisen in the Levant (Di Giacomo 2004) / Middle East (Semino 2004) with the development of agriculture....

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36% (Capelli 2007). In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, (Cinnioglu 2004) with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40% (Semino 2000). Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete. Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008)."
See also at Facebook: Cultural Anthropology of Haplogroup J2.

For a scholarly view, see generally Aram Yardumian and Theodore G. Schurr, Who are the Anatolian Turks? Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence, Anthropology & Archaeology of Eurasia, Volume 50, pp. 6-42, 2011. See also Dienekes' Anthtropology Blog about that publication.

All three Göbekli locations appear to mark stars of what we today call the constellation of Cancer, though of course not identical to modern marking.

To recapitulate see the images at Göbekli Köyu I.

The 3 GOBEKLIS in Sanliurfa are:
  1. Göbekli Tepe, ca 35 kilometers distant from each of the other two
  2. Göbekli Köyü to the west of Şanliurfa (ancient Urfa), whereas Göbekli Tepe is to the northeast of Şanliurfa, ca. 35 kilometers distant from Göbekli Tepe and Aşağı Göbekli.
  3. Aşağı Göbekli which "Google Translate" renders as "down roundabout" but which seems to mean "lower Göbekli" and which is to the south of Şanliurfa, ca. 35 kilometers distant from Göbekli Tepe and Göbekli Köyü.
Obviously, if Göbekli Tepe marked Cancer, then these are the same two "lines" of Cancer that in today's astronomy are seen to run from delta Cancri (Asellus Australis) and the Beehive Cluster to alpha Cancri (Acubens) in one case and to run to beta Cancri (Altarf) in the other case.

The ca. 60° angle formed at Göbekli Tepe by the two lines running to Göbekli Köyü and Aşağı Göbekli appears to be virtually the same as the angle formed by the lines running from delta Cancri to alpha and beta Cancri.

At Sanliurfa, a line extended from Gobekli Tepe to Asagi Gobekli is of nearly equal length to a line extended to Gobekli Koyu. Stars on the same line to beta Cancri as we use today could have been used in prehistoric days, but the ancients may havealso  used stars closer to delta Cancri for making their land survey measurements by astronomy. Beta Cancri is somewhat more distant from delta Cancri than is alpha Cancri.

That analysis appears to hold true, although we can not be sure, because we have not been personally at the actual site, and can not know if the objects we suggest as potential prehistoric markings of stars are in fact ancient and not of modern provenance. For the record, here is what we see as possible:

Google Earth shows the following map image for Aşağı Göbekli which is rendered smaller here to fit on the page.

Is there anyone out there who is unable to see the outline of a bull-like animal with what is more likely a horse's head?

The upper body outline of the figure appears to be a road, perhaps following an ancient path so that the figure shape could be chance, but the head(s) probably not. Perhaps the horse's head replaced a previously existing bull's head figure.

In the next posting, we trace the relevant lines on that map to better identify what is being depicted, including mound-like formations on the ground which in our opinion represent stars of Cancer at and in the stellar area around beta Cancri.

Not having been at the site personally, however, we have no idea what those mound-like formations actually are, nor whether they are ancient or modern, or whether they are modern formations on top of ancient marks. That remains to be determined.

In any case, the next posting deciphers those mound locations as marking stars of Cancer.

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