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Tuesday, September 20, 2016

College Football Game Predictions for Week 4 2016 FBS by SportPundit

College Football Game Predictions Week 4 2016 FBS by SportPundit

Below are our -- SportPundit -- predictions for NCAA Division I FBS College Football in ESPN Week 4, based primarily on our Week 3 College Football Rankings and Ratings for FBS 2016-2017 by SportPundit. We also look at the USA Today Sagarin College Football 2016 Ratings, the Massey Ratings for 2016 NCAA I Football and the Dr. Kambour home field advantage calculations.

Our system is based on net average yards per play stats, calibrated primarily by adjusting for schedule difficulty, i.e. the teams thus far played. Other adjustments are also made (*=adjustment). We take the cumulative yards per play stat data from cfbstats.com and from the college and university football athletic pages online.

Caveat emptor (Buyer beware): We make this material available in good fun out of interest for the sport of college football. Please do not rely on our material to place bets or wagers of any kind.  No one knows the exact outcome of a game or a season before it is played and that is what makes it so interesting. We disclaim any and all liability for the consequences of anyone relying in any way upon our postings, analysis, links or reasoning - for which we make no warranty of accuracy. May the best team win. 

We got up earlier today, so this week we use primarily the odds posted at  Oddsshark viz. VegasInsider.com. We compete against the opening odds and the oft later-posted over/under ("O/U") at those online betting sites. We also compete against the prediction average at the CFPT (College Football Prediction Tracker), this week as posted on Monday, September 19, 2016, 10:22 AM. All of our odds and stats are posted without ANY guarantee of accuracy, and without any liability for our posted materials. We do this for fun. If it is important, the reader must consult the original sites. We use the opening line ("OL") if available, not the updated line ("UL), as we compete against opening odds, if possible. We call the score and not the spread as such because our stats permit that calculation.

We write "was favored" because we use the odds of the opening line, whereas these are usually changed by the time we make our predictions, but we do not compete against those changed odds. We use the CFPT as of the above date.

Thursday, September 22

Clemson at Georgia Tech
The Tigers were favored over the Yellow Jackets by 11 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Clemson by 8.10 points. The O/U (over/under) was 53.5.
Our Call: 34-21 for Clemson. Our SportPundit ratings after Week 3 give Clemson a rating of +0.1 and Georgia Tech a rating of -1.8. Our rankings are designed so that .1 rating point = 1 point on the scoreboard (but one can theoretically take higher or lower multiples so that .1 rating point can equal more or less scoreboard points e.g. .9 or 1.1, and that is not easy to determine). Accordingly, our stats favor the Tigers by 19 points minus the Georgia Tech home field advantage which Kambour has as 5.6186 points, so we go with 13 points. Unless we make other adjustments, that is how we calculate our spread. Clemson this season has averaged 5.68 yards per play on offense and 3.68 yards per play on defense, a total of 9.36. Georgia Tech has averaged 6.48 yards per play on offense and 5.00 yards per play on defense, a total of 11.48. We take an "average" total to be 11 yards per play (ypp on offense + ypp on defense) which we equate with a final score of ca. 38-17, i.e. 55 total points (that is 2.5 points per ypp). Adding Clemson at 9.36 + Georgia Tech at 11.48 we get a total of 20.74 whereas the "average" for a score of 38-17 would be 22 (11 + 11), so we expect a total score that is 94.27% of our target average of 55, which then makes ca. 52 total points. We then went to a final prediction of 34-21 as a more commonly reached final score than 33-20 or 32-19. Unless we make other adjustments, which of course happens, that is our general prediction procedure based on the stats. To that we can/could add the knowledge by experience that Thursday and Friday night games often give extreme results because one team or the other rises to the occasion of having a monopoly night presence on the nation's TV screens. Hence, if we stick strictly to our system, we traditionally do poorly on Thursday and Friday games, but who is to know which team will rise extremely well to the occasion?
Result:
  
Friday, September 23

Wyoming at Eastern Michigan
The Cowboys were favored over the Eagles by 2.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Wyoming by 3.06 points. The O/U (over/under) was 64.
Our Call: 34-27 for Wyoming. We expect more points due to TV coverage. Our SportPundit ratings favor the Cowboys by 8 points minus the Eastern Michigan home field advantage which Kambour has as 0.8199 points. Both of these teams have something to prove. Eastern Michigan wants to affirm it is no longer the FBS cellar dweller (they beat Charlotte last week) while Wyoming wants to prove that the massive Cowboy rebuilding program under Craig Bohl is continuing to make the positive progress demonstrated in their opening season win over Northern Illinois. Who will be over the top?
Result: ?? 

TCU at SMU
The Horned Frogs were favored over the Mustangs by 24 points. The CFPT prediction average favored TCU by 17.32 points. The over/under was 65.5.
Our Call: 36-23 for TCU. The Horned Frogs are a perennial contender under head coach Gary Patterson, who in 2014 brought the Air Raid to TCU football. SMU in turn has already made tremendous improvement under 2nd year head coach Chad Morris, coming from Clemson, where he was the offensive coordinator. Kambour has the Mustang home field advantage at 1.2600 points.
Result: ?? 

USC at Utah
The Utes were favored over the Trojans by 2 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Utah by 2.99 points. The over/under was 47.
Our Call: 27-24 for USC. Southern Cal must have a strong need to prove to the nation that their blowout loss to Alabama was an aberration.
Result: ?? 

Saturday, September 24

Kent Sate at Alabama
The Tide were favored over the Golden Flashes by 41.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Alabama by 46.37 points. The over/under was 54.
Our Call: 48-7 for Alabama. Our stats favor the Crimson Tide by 48 points plus the home field advantage of 3.1922, according to Kambour. However, Kent State has excellent defensive ypp stats, so we go under the betting spread.
Result: ?? 

Georgia
at Mississippi
Ole Miss was favored over the Dawgs by 6 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Mississippi by 8.12 points. The over/under was 58.5.
Our Call: 34-33 for Georgia. Our stats favor Georgia by 1 point minus the Rebels home advantage, which Kambour calculates at 3.2897. Normally, that would speak for Ole Miss, but their defensive ypp stats show vulnerability.
Result: ?? 

Nevada
at Purdue
Purdue was favored over the Wolf Pack by 5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Purdue by 1.37 points. The over/under was 57.5.
Our Call: 33-30 for Nevada. Our stats makes this game even except for the Boilermakers home field advantage, which is -- however -- put by Kambour at a minus -2.6693.
Result: ?? 

San José State at Iowa State
The Cyclones were favored over the Spartans by 6 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Iowa State by 1.55 points. The over/under was 55.
Our Call: 37-23 for Iowa State. Our stats favor Iowa State by seven points plus the home field advantage, which Kambour has at 7.4592 points.
Result: ??
 
Charlotte at Temple
The Owls were favored over the 49ers by 29.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Temple by 27.70 points. The over/under was 68.
Our Call: 35-20 for Temple. Our stats favor Temple by 15 points, minus the 49ers presumed home field advantage which Kambour calculates at 3.5938.
Result: ?? 

Iowa at Rutgers
The Hawkeyes were favored over the Scarlet Knights by 13.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Iowa by 13.06 points. The over/under was 56.5.
Our Call: 41-14 for Iowa. Our stats favor the Hawkeyes by 30 points minus the Scarlet Knights home field advantage, set at Kambour at 3.4243.
Result: ?? 

Florida State at South Florida
The Seminoles were favored over the Bulls by 5.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Florida State by 1.61 points. The over/under was 63.5.
Our Call: 31-30 for South Florida. Our stats favor the Seminoles by 4 points minus the Bulls home field advantage, calculated by Kambour as 4.6050.
Result: ?? 

Colorado State at Minnesota
The Golden Gophers were favored over the Rams by 15.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Minnesota by 13.80 points. The over/under was 57.5.
Our Call: 34-21 for Minnesota. Our stats favor Minnesota by 9 plus the home field advantage of 4.4910, according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Wisconsin at Michigan State
The Spartans were favored over the Badgers by 6 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Michigan State by 3.97 points. The over/under was 45.5.
Our Call: 34-27 for Michigan State. Our ratings favor Michigan State by 1 point, but we adjusted the schedule difficulty for Wisconsin, so they may be weaker than our ratings. Kambour calculates the Spartan home advantage as 3.2710 points. We choose the Spartan strength.
Result: ?? 

East Carolina at Virginia Tech
The Hokies were favored over the Pirates by 9.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Virginia Tech by 10.83 points. The over/under was 56.
Our Call: 35-24 for Virginia Tech. Our stats favor the Hokies by 8 points plus the home field advantage of Virginia Tech, which we take here as the standard 3 points.
Result: ?? 

Central Michigan at Virginia
The Chippewas were favored over the Cavaliers by 2 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Central Michigan by 8.78 points. The over/under was 52.5.
Our Call: 41-20 for Central Michigan. Our stats favor the Chippewas by 26 points minus the Virginia home field advantage which Kambour has at 4.6184.
Result: ?? 

Syracuse at Connecticut
The Huskies were favored over the Orange by 6 points. The CFPT prediction average favored UConn by 3.70 points. The over/under was 54.
Our Call: 27-26 for Syracuse. Our stats favor Syracuse by 3 points minus the UConn home field advantage so we see this one as a toss-up. The Orange have struggled against top offenses, but that is not the UConn strength.
Result: ?? 

Wagner at Boston College
The Eagles were favored over the Seahawks by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 37-6 for Boston College.
Result: ?? 

Gardner-Webb at Ohio
The Bobcats were favored over the Runnin' Bulldogs by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 38-7 for Ohio.
Result: ?? 

Miami of Ohio at Cincinnati
The Bearcats were favored over the Redhawks by 19.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Cincinnati by 18.41 points. The over/under was 58.5.
Our Call: 35-24 for Cincinnati. Our stats favor Cincinnati by 4 points plus the home field advantage, 6.5723 according to Kambour calculations.
Result: ?? 

Western Illinois at Northern Illinois
The ?? were favored over the ?? by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 30-27 for Northern Illinois.
Result: ?? 

Appalachian State at Akron
The Mountaineers were favored over the Zips by 7 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Appalachian State by 2.37 points. The over/under was 58.
Our Call: 37-28 for Akron. Our stats favor Akron by five points plus the 3.7426 home field advantage, as calculated by Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Boise State at Oregon State
The Broncos were favored over the Beavers by 14 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Boise State by 12.98 points. The over/under was 61.5.
Our Call: 42-10 for Boise State. Our stats favor Boise State by 33 points minus the Oregon State home field advantage of 0.8876, as calculated at Kambour.
Result: ??
 
BYU at West Virginia
The Mountaineers were favored over the Cougars by 3.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored West Virginia by 5.53 points. The over/under was 48.
Our Call: 34-20 for West Virginia. Our stats favor West Virginia by 11 points plus the home field advantage.
Result: ?? 

Duke at Notre Dame
The Fighting Irish were favored over the Blue Devils by 20 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Notre Dame by 14.99 points. The over/under was 58.5.
Our Call: 42-10 for Notre Dame. Our stats favor the Irish by 29 points plus the home field advantage.
Result: ?? 

Mississippi State at Massachusetts
The Bulldogs were favored over the Minutemen by 25 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Mississippi State by 18.49 points. The over/under was 41.5.
Our Call: 35-7 for Mississippi State. Our stats favor the Bulldogs by 28 points minus the home field advantage of the Minutemen, calculated as 0.1672 at Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Florida at Tennessee
The Volunteers were favored over the Gators by 8 points. The CFPT prediction average favored the Vols by 7.09 points. The O/U (over/under) was 45.
Our Call: 21-20 for Tennessee. Our stats favor Florida by two points minus the Rocky Top home field advantage, calculated as 3.5532 by Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Pittsburgh at North Carolina
The Tar Heels were favored over the Panthers by 7 points. The CFPT prediction average favored North Carolina by 8.95 points. The over/under was 70.
Our Call: 41-26 for North Carolina. Our stats favor North Carolina by 9 points plus the home field advantage, calculated as 6.0663 by Kambour.
Result: ?? 

UTSA (Texas San Antonio) at Old Dominion
The Monarchs were favored over the Roadrunners by 1.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Old Dominion by 4.09 points. The over/under was 54.
Our Call: 31-24 for Old Dominion. Our stats favor the Monarchs by 8 points plus the home field advantage, which -- however -- Kambour calculates as minus -2.2426.
Result: ??

Penn State at Michigan
The Wolverines were favored over the Nittany Lions by 15.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Michigan by 17.29 points. The over/under was 59.5.
Our Call: 38-17 for Michigan. Our stats favor Michigan by 19 plus the home field advantage of 3.8150, according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Wake Forest at Indiana
The Hoosiers were favored over the Demon Deacons by 5.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Indiana by 5.53 points. The over/under was 49.
Our Call: 31-17 for Indiana. Our stats favor Indiana by 10 points plus the home field advantage, 4.3704 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Delaware State at Missouri
The Tigers were favored over the Hornets by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 45-0 for Missouri.
Result: ??
 
Vanderbilt at Western Kentucky
The Hilltoppers were favored over the Commodores by 7.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Western Kentucky by 10.56 points. The over/under was 52.5.
Our Call: 38-20 for Western Kentucky. Our stats favor the Hilltoppers by 14 points plus the home field advantage, 3.7552 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Tulsa at Fresno State
The Golden Hurricane were favored over the Bulldogs by 11.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Tulsa by 11.91 points. The over/under was 64.5.
Our Call: 35-20 for Tulsa. Our stats favor Tulsa by 18 points minus the home field advantage, put by Kambour at 2.5422.
Result: ?? 

Colorado at Oregon
The Ducks were favored over the Buffaloes by 7.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Oregon by 8.38 points. The over/under was 68.5.
Our Call: 31-27 for Oregon. Our stats favor Oregon by 5 points plus the home field advantage, calculated at Kambour as minus -1.3050.
Result: ?? 

LSU at Auburn
The LSU Tigers were favored over the Auburn Tigers by 4 points. The CFPT prediction average favored LSU by 1.74 points. The over/under was 45.5.
Our Call: 24-23 for Auburn. Our stats favor LSU by 4 points minus the home field advantage. A toss-up? We go with the home team.
Result: ?? 

Ball State at Florida Atlantic
The Cardinals were favored over the Owls by 3 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Ball State by 3.06 points. The over/under was 54.
Our Call: 30-21 for Ball State. Our stats favor Ball state by 13 minus the Owls home field advantage, according to Kambour 4.1498.
Result: ?? 

North Texas at Rice
The Owls were favored over the Mean Green by 7.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Rice by 8.06 points. The over/under was 53.5.
Our Call: 27-26 for North Texas. Our stats favor North Texas by 3 points. Kambour has the home field advantage at Rice as 1.4276.
Result: ?? 

Houston at Texas State
The Cougars were favored over the Bobcats by 33 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Houston by 29.15 points. The over/under was 66.
Our Call: 38-10 for Houston. Our stats favor Houston by 29 points minus the Texas State home field advantage, set by Kambour at 1.3823
Result: ?? 

Central Arkansas at Arkansas State
The Red Wolves were favored over the Bears by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 38-24 for Arkansas State.
Result: ?? 

New Mexico State at Troy
The Trojans were favored over the Aggies by 17.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Troy by 21.10 points. The over/under was 68.
Our Call: 37-21 for Troy. Our stats favor Troy by 14 plus the home field advantage, calculated at Kambour as 1.4978.
Result: ??
 
Nicholls State at South Alabama
The Jaguars were favored over the Colonels by ?.?? points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 31-27 for South Alabama.
Result: ?? 

Georgia Southern at Western Michigan
The Broncos were favored over the Eagles by 4 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Western Michigan by 9.96 points. The over/under was 57.5.
Our Call: 35-23 for Western Michigan. Our stats favor Western Michigan by 10 points plus the home field advantage, according to Kambour 2.4327.
Result: ?? 

UCF (Central Florida) at FIU (Florida International)
The Knights were favored over the Golden Panthers by 5.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored UCF by 3.33 points. The over/under was 51.
Our Call: 31-21 for UCF. Our stats favor the Knights by 13 points minus the home field advantage of FIU, 2.3971 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Louisiana Tech at Middle Tennessee
The Blue Raiders were favored over the Bulldogs by 4 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Middle Tennessee by 2.14 points. The over/under was 67.
Our Call: 31-27 for Louisiana Tech. Our stats favor Louisiana Tech by 9 points minus the home field advantage of the Blue Raiders, 5.1675 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Army at Buffalo
The Black Knights were favored over the Bulls by 16 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Army by 16.21 points. The over/under was 50.
Our Call: 31-23 for Army. Our stats favor Army by 9 points minus the Bulls home field advantage, 9.1435 (!) according to Kambour. The problem is that Army has a rushing offense ranked 2nd in the nation while the Buffalo rushing defense is ranked 114th. Where is a Leipold miracle to come from?
Result: ?? 

Missouri State at Kansas State
The Wildcats were favored over the Bears by ?.?? points. The O/U (over/under) was ??.
Our Call: 51-7 for Kansas State.
Result: ?? 

Nebraska at Northwestern
The Huskers were favored over the Wildcats by 6.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Nebraska by 5.56 points. The over/under was 48.5.
Our Call: 27-24 for the Huskers. Our stats favor the Cornhuskers by 7 points, minus the Northwestern home field advantage, 3.5310 according to Kambour. Northwestern lost at home 22-21 to Western Michigan, a team to which we give the same rating as Nebraska, but the Husker defense seems better.
Result: ?? 

Oklahoma State at Baylor
The Bears were favored over the Cowboys by 10 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Baylor by 7.70 points. The over/under was 72.5.
Our Call: 31-24 for Baylor. Our stats favor Baylor by 3 points plus the home field advantage, 4.0326 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

South Carolina at Kentucky
The Wildcats were favored over the Gamecocks by 1.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored South Carolina by 3.36 points. The over/under was 54.5.
Our Call: 34-28 for South Carolina. Our stats favor South Carolina by 9 points minus the Kentucky home field advantage.
Result: ??
 
Stanford at UCLA
The Cardinal were favored over the Bruins by 2.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Stanford by 6.85 points. The over/under was 48.
Our Call: 31-17 for Stanford. Our stats favor Stanford by 12 points minus the UCLA home field advantage, which Kambour calculates at minus -2.1056.
Result: ?? 

Louisville at Marshall
The Cardinals were favored over the Thundering Herd by 23 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Louisville by 22.20 points. The over/under was 72.5.
Our Call: 61-21 for Louisville. Our stats favor Louisville by 46 points.
 minus the Marshall home field advantage, Kambour-calculated at 6.2358.
Result: ?? 

Bowling Green at Memphis
The Tigers were favored over the Falcons by 16.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Memphis by 17.02 points. The over/under was 61.5.
Our Call: 35-17 for Memphis. Our stats favor Memphis by 13 points plus the home field advantage, 5.1227 according to Kambour.
Result: ??
 
Louisiana Lafayette (ULL) at Tulane
The Green Wave were favored over the Ragin' Cajuns by 3 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Tulane by 5.47 points. The over/under was 50.5.
Our Call: 26-24 for Tulane. Our stats give each of these teams the same rating. Kambour calculates a 2-point home field advantage for Tulane.
Result: ?? 

Southern Mississippi at UTEP (Texas El Paso)
The Golden Eagles were favored over the Miners by 10 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Southern Miss by 15.13 points. The over/under was 63.5.
Our Call: 31-24 for Southern Miss. Our stats favor Southern Miss by 11 points minus the home field advantage of the Miners, 5.0471 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Idaho at UNLV
The Rebels were favored over the Vandals by 13 points. The CFPT prediction average favored UNLV by 11.45 points. The over/under was 63.
Our Call: 33-24 for UNLV. Our stats favor UNLV by 10 points plus the home field advantage, however -- that is a minus -0.7902 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Arkansas at Texas A&M
The Aggies were favored over the Razorbacks by 3 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Texas A&M by 2.31 points. The over/under was 50.5.
Our Call: 28-24 for Texas A&M. Our stats favor the Aggies by 3 points plus the home field advantage, 1.1672 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

California at Arizona State
The Sun Devils were favored over the Golden Bears by 6.5 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Arizona State by 3.89 points. The over/under was 80.5.
Our Call: 41-40 for California. Our stats favor Cal by 5 points minus the Sun Devils home field advantage, 5.6826 according to Kambour, so it's a toss-up. California is coming off a good win over Texas.
Result: ?? 

Air Force at Utah State
The Falcons were favored over the Aggies by 3 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Air Force by 1.61 points. The over/under was 58.
Our Call: 28-27 for Air Force. Our stats favor the Falcons by 1 point over the Aggies, but the Aggies have the home field advantage, 2.5353 according to Kambour. Air Force has the #1 rushing offense in the nation, Utah State the 44th-ranked rushing defense.
Result: ?? 

Washington at Arizona
The Huskies were favored over the Wildcats by 10 points. The CFPT prediction average favored Washington by 11.64 points. The over/under was ??.
Our Call: 37-23 for Washington. Our stats favor Washington by 18 points, minus the Arizona home field advantage, 4.3118 according to Kambour.
Result: ?? 

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1 :
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
,
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2 :
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    ,
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.

    -----

    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically
    in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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